pot butter recipe small batch

How To Make Edibles & Cannabutter With Only 2 Grams Of Weed

Especially beginner canna chefs can find it challenging to make edibles without using their whole stash of marijuana. Yet making a small batch of ready-to-eat cannabutter is super easy! This recipe shares simple steps on how to make cannabutter with 2 grams of weed.

Over the ages, marijuana has been used recreationally and medicinally. Getting in your THC and other healthy cannabinoids with small-batch cannabutter is ideal, since these compounds bind to fat molecules in the body. This simply means you are making it easier for your body to absorb the stuff it loves.

As little as one or two grams of weed could effectively produce 1–4 ounces of pot-enriched butter, prime for cooking.

This recipe will turn one gram of dried flowers into approximately 1–2 ounces of finished butter. Double it so two grams of dry buds produce around 2–4 ounces of butter.

How to Make Cannabutter with 2 Grams of Weed


  1. 1–2 grams of your favorite weed strain, dried and ground (one gram for 1–2 ounces of butter, two grams for 2–4). Important—decarboxylate your marijuana first! Read here for some excellent tips on this process.
  2. 3–6 ounces of butter that has a high concentration of lipids (3 ounces to get 2 ounces of finished product, 6 ounces to get around 4 ounces of butter). This is the one time to ditch low fat if you want good results!
  3. Medium saucepan
  4. Wooden spoon to stir the pot
  5. ¼ cup of filtered or distilled drinking water to add during the cooking process (if needed)
  6. 220-micron pollen extraction bag, or a 1’x1’ piece of cheesecloth for straining
  7. Medium to large bowl into which you can strain your finished mixture
  8. Mold or container in which the butter can solidify

Let’s get cookin’!


  • Place the saucepan on the range top and set the temp to medium-low. Place the amount of butter you decided upon into the saucepan to melt. Once the butter starts to melt down, add the dried, ground, and decarboxylated marijuana flowers to the now-melting butter. Gently bring the mixture to a boil, then reduce heat to a lower setting and let it simmer.
  • You may notice the butter starting to reduce at this time. Be careful not to burn the mixture. You can stir in a little bit of water at a time to help keep the temperature lower so the butter doesn’t burn but will still be hot enough to decarboxylate the weed. Allow the mixture to simmer on low while stirring frequently.
  • When using one gram of weed, allow the butter to simmer for 35–45 minutes. And allow the mixture to simmer for 60–95 minutes when using two grams of ground dried buds, keeping it in mind to stir frequently.
  • During this time, prepare the strainer. Do this simply by binding the straining cloth of choice relatively tightly over the bowl. (Alternatively, you can get someone to hold the cloth while you slowly pour your butter mixture into it. You don’t want the cloth to collapse into the bowl!)
  • After approximately 15–20 minutes of cooking, the butter should begin to take on a greenish or brownish color. Anything darker than that most likely means you’re burning the butter or the weed. Adding a bit more water to the cooking mixture can remedy the situation. But don’t add more than 2 tablespoons in order to refrain from diluting the butter.
  • Once the butter has finished cooking, slowly pour the mixture through one of the suggested strainers, using the bowl to catch the hot liquid. It’s a good idea to repeat this step. Press any remaining flowers or mixture gently through the cloth with the wooden spoon, or wring out the cloth gently, if you choose.
  • After the freshly strained butter has had a chance to cool for 4–5 minutes, you can either leave it in the bowl to chill or pour it into a mold or container of your choosing. Cover the butter with the container’s lid or with plastic film wrap, then place it in the refrigerator for a minimum of 5–6 hours—ideally overnight. The longer you chill it, the better the chance it will set up properly.

Let’s Eat!

See? How to make cannabutter with 2 grams of weed need not flummox you!

The solidified end product is now ready for consumption. You can either eat it as is, or you can use it in any recipe that calls for a small amount of butter (2 ounces of cannabutter will cover ¼ cup – 4 tablespoons – 12 teaspoons, or multiply accordingly). Another idea would be to spread the cannabutter on freshly toasted bread and add fruit preserves. [1][2]

Bonus: How to Calculate the THC Dosage for Your Small-Batch Cannabutter

For the uninitiated—tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is one compound found in marijuana that gives you the sought-after “high.” Edibles can often be much more potent than expected, so knowing how to calculate your THC when you make cannabutter from 2 grams of weed is helpful.

Jessica Catalano, author and chef for a mountain retreat cannabis tour company, advises that you should start by knowing your strains. Some contain much higher levels of THC than others.

In an interview with The Cannabist , she explains that “every 1 gram of cannabis bud has 1,000mg of dry weight. If a strain has about 10% THC, ten percent of 1,000mg would be 100mg. So for cooking or baking at home, it is safe to assume that a gram of cannabis contains at least 100mg THC….Take the amount of ground marijuana, convert it to milligrams and divide it by the recipe yield to determine a per-serving dose of THC. A starting dosage for beginners is 5 milligrams per serving.” [3]

Small-batch cannabutter can also be an ideal gift, packaged beautifully. No matter what you use it for, this is one of the great ways to ingest marijuana.

Contrary to popular belief, it's possible to make smaller batches of cannabutter out of just 2 grams of weed. Learn more about the recipe and process now.

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  • Home
  • 421 Store
  • Blog
    • Cannabis as a Medicine
    • Cannabis Effects
    • Lifestyle
    • Cafe & Bakery
    • CannaAcademy
    • Interview with a Cannapreneur
    • Dry Herb Vaping Guide
    • Benefits Of Vaping Weed
    • How to Choose Your First Vaporizer
    • Vaporizer high vs. Smoking high
    • Conduction vs. Convection
    • Portable vs. Desktop Vaporizer
    • Wax vs. Dry Herb Vaporizers: What’s better?
    • How to Use a Dry Herb Vaporizer
    • Indoors Growing Guide
    • 5 Reasons to Grow Your Weed
    • A Step by Step Guide
    • Step One: Build An Indoor Grow Room
    • Step Two: Germinating The Seeds
    • Step three: The Vegetative Stage
    • Step Four: Flowering Stage
    • Step Five: Harvesting and Drying
    • Step Six: How to Trim Your Marijuana Bud
    • Auto-Flowering vs Feminized Seeds
    • Hydroponic Cannabis Growing Made Easy

    1 Gram Cannabutter Recipe – How to Make Quality Marijuana Butter?

    How to Make Quality Marijuana Butter?

    1 Gram Cannabutter Recipe

    Contrary to what some say, the 1 gram cannabutter recipe is real and it works!

    A few weeks back I got my hands on some pretty potent Lemon OG Kush (read our Complete Guide to Choose The Perfect Marijuana Strain for Your Lifestyle) – 2 grams of flower to be exact. Rolling one gram up into a nice joint, I sat leisurely and well-medicated in my kitchen thinking, ‘Maybe I can make cannabutter with this other gram.’

    Me being the need-to-know-it-all that I am, made sure to do some research before whipping up this marvelous 1 gram into a cannabutter recipe. Anybody who has ever researched the small batch recipe knows that most people out there believe it’s simply not possible to turn 1 gram of cannabis into cannabutter. Well, I’m going to let you in on a little secret, all of those people are simply wrong, it IS possible, it IS easy, and it IS fantastic! Below is the recipe that I used.

    *Check this Cannabis Cooking Calculator for the perfect dose.

    3 tips to guarantee potent cannabutter

    1. Decarboxylate first
    2. Use high quality bud, preferably from a legal dispensary, if possible.
    3. Consider mixing in some CBD: H igh-THC brownies can be fun, however adding in a little CBD will make the experience more subtle and enjoyable.

    Saving note: Use discount code “30offcbd” for 30% off your first order from our online CBD store; GoodyCBD.

    How to Dose Homemade Cannabis Edibles

    You start with checking the THC percentage on the package. It will be impossible to determine when you got your bud from a dealer, because the “packaging” will be simply a bag of weed.

    Low-quality bud (or trim) can contain as little as 3% THC. On the other hand, top-shelf marijuana strains can average 28%.

    Total THC refers to the maximum decarboxylated THC that is presented in a product; it’s why it’s very important to decarb your bud before cooking it to get the best results out the process. Read our blog post ” How To Decarb Weed in 3 Simple Step? And Why You Should?”

    Total THC can be calculated using the following formula:

    Total THC = THC + (THCa x 0.877)

    Let’s do a quick calculation, for 1 gram that contains 20% THC and 15% THCa .

    20% THC of 1000mg of bud, that means you will have 200mg THC for every 1g of flower.

    15% THCa of 1000mg, that means you will have 150mg THCa for every 1g of flower.

    Using the formula above: Total THC = 200mg + (150mg x 0.877) = 331.55mg

    Under ideal conditions, you get a 60% efficiency of extraction in dairy butter, so 331.5mg x 0.6 = 198.93mg maximum THC likely to be extracted.

    Eventually, if you made a small batch of brownies using this one gram marijuana cannabutteer, the whole batch will have around 198.93mg THC.

    To put this number in prospective, please check out our blog piece Marijuana Edibles for the First Time, Dosage and What to Expect .


    Before I get started, keep in mind that any good recipe requires diligence, patience, and awareness of ingredient ratios. These three principles are not to be taken lightly! Nobody wants to waist their medicine and end up with burned flowers and a stinky kitchen, not to mention the frustration of not being medicated.

    Saving Note: Use discount code ‘mb421‘ to get 30% off your Magical Butter. Limited quantity. Discount code is active from today until Sep 30, 2018. Order here.

    Here’s what you’re going to need:

    1-2 grams grounded of mid to top shelf flower. (FIRST and foremost, make sure to decarboxylation your Marijuana. Again, ALWAYS DECARB. Read our blog post ” How To Decarb Weed in 3 Simple Step? And Why You Should?”

    3-6 ounces of butter – Butter has a high concentration of lipids which allows THC compounds to bind easily to the fats. Make sure to use real butter and not a low fat version, in this case fats are your friends (I would suggest Land O’Lakes butter). This explains why people prefer butter over most oils. If you’d rather use oil, your best bet is either Grapeseed or coconut oil; they have a higher cooking temperature than most oil. 1 cup of either grapeseed or coconut oil is enough for the recipe.

    A spoon for stirring

    1 cheese cloth or a relatively dense paper towel, although the cheese cloth is the ideal choice. You can also use a tight wire pasta strainer but you may get plant particles in your oil. If you use a strainer, be sure that it’s metal and not plastic; learned that one the hard way.

    A bowl for pouring your strained THC infused butter

    1/4 cup of water


    Place your butter in the saucepan at medium-low heat. As the butter begins to melt, mix in your ground decarbed flowers/leaves.

    At this point, the butter may begin to reduce at an exceptionally fast rate. This is when you slowly pour in the 1/4 cup of water so that your butter doesn’t burn on you.

    Now that you have your butter, flower, and water coming to a boil, lower the heat to allow for a gentle simmer. Do not let the butter continue to boil, remove from heat and let cool for a few seconds if necessary.

    Keep in mind that our proportions are small, so to have the best marijuana butter results, timing is everything. If you are using one gram of flower, let the mixture simmer for 30 minutes with frequent stirring. If you are using 2 grams of flower, let your mixture simmer for an 1 hour-1 1/2 hours. Although I don’t know the exact science behind these ratios, I found that in my controlled environment they worked best. Please feel free to share your experiences in the comment section below.

    After the first 15 minutes, you should begin to see the hue of the butter turn from gold to a murky brown. Avoid a black or very dark brown color, this may mean that you are burning your flower and the butter itself. If this starts to happen, either reduce the heat or add no more than 2 tablespoons of water.

    Post-cooking Preparation

    Now that your cannabutter mixture is ready for straining, put your cheese cloth (recommended) or dense paper towel over a bowl. Here I would suggest either having someone hold the cloth or rubber banding the cloth to the bowl with relatively tightness so that the weight of the butter doesn’t force the cloth to cave in on the bowl.

    Slowly pour your cannabutter mixture into the bowl covered by the cloth. It warrants repeating, slowly pour your weed butter mixture into the bowl covered by the cloth! If you simply dump your mixture into the covered bowl, you may run the risk of collapsing the cloth into the bowl.

    If some of the reduced flower gets onto the cloth that’s fine, just be super delicate when wringing the cloth out so that the you don’t tear it and your flowers end up in your marijuana butter. Using a spoon or other utensil, press any leftover butter out of the plant remains to ensure that all butter gets into the bowl.

    Tip for frugal stoners

    Instead of throwing out the strained bud after straining it, keep it in a ziploc bag and put in the fridge or freezer for safe keeping. the bud may still have a little bit of THC left in it, you can still eat it and it will make you high since it’s already decarbed. It won’t take very good, again, it’s for frugal stoners, as I am.

    You can also mix it into half of a stick of butter, but this time instead of straining the bud, leave it in. It won’t be strong at all, but it works very well to make, for instance, a frosting or icing or some kind of topper on the more potent that you made with the strained bud.


    Here’s what you should have at this point:

    • An empty saucepan
    • A cheese cloth or paper towel that is drenched in butter, unless you chose to ring it out into the bowl
    • A bowl with the flowerless liquid butter mixture. Keep in mind if you used 3 ounces of butter, your reduction should measure out to 1-2 ounces of cannabutter. If you have 3-6 ounces of butter than your reduction should measure out to 2-4 ounces of cannabutter.

    The Final Touches

    Place your liquid butter in the fridge (or freezer) and let it solidify; anywhere from 4 hours to overnight (for optimal results).

    Now you should have what looks, tastes, and smells like an almost greenish-brown marijuana butter that can be used on just about anything! I prefer a nice tablespoon in my eggs and toast or even spread some on a piece of toast with cinnamon to make cinnamon toast. Whatever you decide though, the butter is yours for the cookin’ and can go into any recipe! More importantly, this isn’t a big batch recipe, leaving large bowls of cannabutter in the fridge for others to find. In fact, I would say it’s being able to make cannabutter a condiment rather than the main ingredient!

    Hopefully this 1 gram cannabutter recipe works just as well for you as it did for me! If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask and I will be sure to address them ASAP.

    Editor’s Note: This post was originally published in December 2015 and has been completely revamped and updated as needed for accuracy and comprehensiveness.

    All GIF photos credited to

    29 Responses

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    Друзья, щедро делюсь с вами своим наблюдением. Нашла тут сайт, при добавлении на который, мой баннер размещается на всех сайтах сделанных одной web-студией, их не много, но они достойные! Есть посещаемые социальные сети и видно, что функционирующие Интернет магазины…

    Как мне кажется получить такую рекламу сразу всего за 5 рублей в сутки отличный вариант. Да это ротатор, но метрика стала показывать заходы с этого сервиса и некоторые длятся больше часа с четырьмя зелеными кружками, раньше такого не было.

    Если что не так, не судите строго, посоветуйте, может я не права?

    [url=]Добавь свой баннер сразу на несколько сайтов[/url]

    December 01, 2020

    Do you recommend unsalted butter or is it much of a sameness? Cheers


    hello 🙂 i came across your recipe for canabutter and your decarb instructions and i was so happy. Easy to follow. I used a cleaned jam jar to decarb my greens in n put the lid on n into the oven for 40 minutes at 110 degrees Celsius with a meat thermometer in the oven to control the heat. Anyway, i took the lid off the jar and holymoly. I swear just smelling got to my head haha. I also used a tea towel instead of cheese cloth as paper towel absobed to much of my butter. Im very happy with my results. Thank you:)

    December 01, 2020

    I want to try this tomorrow. For 1 gram of flower how much Oil do i use? And the cooking time and also the dosages.

    How to Make Cannabutter ? Believe It or Not, the 1 Gram Cannabutter Recipe Is Real & It Works! A few weeks back I got my hands on some pretty potent Lemon OG Kush – 2 grams of flower to be exact. Rolling 1 gram up into a nice joint,I sat leisurely and well-medicated in my kitchen thinking, maybe I can make cannabutter


organic hydroponics cannabis

Best Hydroponic Nutrients for Cannabis?

In other words, why are some hydro nutrients better than others for growing cannabis? What kind of hydroponic nutrients need to be avoided when growing marijuana? Do you need expensive nutrients to get good results, or will cheap nutrients get the job done?

With all the different bottles of marijuana nutrients out there, how do you know which one is best for your hydroponic setup?

When it comes to choosing hydroponic nutrients for growing weed, there are a few considerations that are really important!

Best Hydroponic Nutrients

  • Made specifically for hydroponics
  • No organic matter (nutrients are provided via minerals)
  • Mineral nutrients are “chelated” (easier for plant to absorb at a greater range of pH levels)
  • Contains rich sources of micro-nutrients (to make up for what might have been found in the soil)
  • Optimum NPK ratios (more info below)

Worst Hydroponic Nutrients

  • Made specifically for soil
  • Contains a lot of organic matter (guano, worm castings, fish emulsion, blood meal, etc) – this stuff can completely mess up your reservoir and cause unexpected and unwanted bacteria/root problems. If it seems cloudy with lots of material floating in the water, don’t use it for hydro!

You can learn a lot about nutrients by looking at the label!

Optimum NPK Ratios for Hydroponic Cannabis Nutrients

N-P-K stands for Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium, which are the three most important plant nutrients. These are what the 3 numbers listed on the front of all nutrient bottles stand for (Potassium is represented by “K” because chemists use the symbol K in the periodic table for potassium).

In order to get the best results growing cannabis in hydroponics, it’s important to give the right ratio of these crucial nutrients so the plant gets what it needs at the right time. For example, if you give too much Nitrogen in the flowering/budding phase, it actually surpresses bud production and reduces your yields even if the plant is completely healthy! You don’t want that!

So what are the optimum NPK values for growing cannabis in hydro?
(N-P-K are the 3 numbers on the front of nutrient bottles)

Optimal Hydroponic Cannabis N-P-K Nutrient Ratios
Life Stage N P K
Vegetative/Grow High Medium to High High
Flowering/Bloom Low High High

Additionally, hydroponic nutrients should always include….

  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Sulfur

Nice but not necessary micro-nutrients (contained in most water sources, but if using RO or very soft water you want these in your nutrients to prevent possible deficiencies)

  • Boron
  • Cobalt
  • Copper
  • Manganese
  • Molybdenum
  • Zinc

The main difference between NPK ratios for hydro and soil are….

  • Hydro nutrients usually contain more micro-nutrients (in trace amounts), to make up for what the plant would have been able to find in the soil
  • Hydro nutrients tend to contain higher levels of Nitrogen, which is abundant in soil but not in most water sources.
  • Hydro nutrients tend to have lower levels of Phosphorus, because Phosphorus is more “available” to the plant in a hydroponic setting. In soil, there are microorganisms (as well as clay “colloidal” particles) which can ‘steal’ some of it, and soil nutrients compensate by adding more Phosphorus.
  • Hydro nutrients rarely use organic sources of nutrients. Soil nutrients often contain organic material, which can can make it easier for bad stuff to grow in a hydroponic reservoir. Organic sources of minerals also usually need to be broken down by microorganisms before the plant can absorb them, which doesn’t happen as well in a soilless environment.
  • Hydro nutrients are often made up of chelated minerals which have been specially treated so they are easier for the plant to absorb.

What are Chelated Nutrients? Manufacturers actually “wrap” the nutrients inside an organic molecule that is less affected by pH, making it easier for the plant to absorb even if the pH is too high or too low.

When set up right with good nutrients, DWC / Hydroponics can produce some incredible yields!

Optimum pH of 5.5-6.5 Recommended DWC Nutrients & Supplements

These hydroponic nutrients systems are not just great as far as cannabis yields and quality, they won’t break the bank either! There are lots of great nutrient systems out there, but the truth is that you don’t need incredibly expensive nutrients to get incredible marijuana!

The following nutrient systems have proven to thousands of growers, big and small, that they have everything needed to produce star-quality cannabis!

General Hydroponics Flora Trio Lineup

These plants grown using just the GH Trio + Hydroguard (formally known as Aquashield)
Feel free to check out the complete grow journal (over 1 lb harvest!)

General Hydroponics Flora Duo Lineup

General Hydroponics FloraDuo (Bottle A & Bottle B) ​

Hydroguard (formally known as Aquashield) – prevents and treats root rot.

House & Garden DWC Kit Lineup

Warning: H&G Products have been difficult to find online lately

The House & Garden line-up is expensive yet remarkably effective. Aqua Flakes A + B, Roots Excelurator, Algen Extract ​

Hydroguard (formally known as Aquashield) – prevents and treats root rot. No need for extra Cal-Mag with the Aqua Flakes line as it already comes with plenty!

Botanicare KIND Hydro Lineup

This is actually the hydroponic nutrient lineup I plan to use for my next grow. Right now I’m using the General Hydroponics Flora trio (which I’ve used for more than half a decade with amazing results), but I’ve decided I want to try something new and KIND is what I’ve decided to go with. I’ve heard/seen so many great things about it and Botanicare is a great company that takes feedback from cannabis growers and is happy to answer any questions if you contact them through their website.

Botanicare KIND Trio For Hydro (Base, Grow, Bloom) ​

From a grower who wrote in: “I use the Botanicare KIND lineup – it seems to get good results, not too expensive, and works very well in hydro.” Another grower told us, “As far as favorites go, I’ve been pretty pleased with Botanicare KIND, it’s ‘pretty good’ when you follow the chart, but once you start tinkering with it based on what you see with your plants, it’ll really shine since it was developed to be played with.” Apparently a lot of growers like tinkering with this trio as another grower said, “Botanicare KIND is like the opposite spectrum [of the Botanicare Pure Blend series]. The Base is just Nitrogen and Calcium. Grow and Bloom both have most of the minerals in them, along with things like seakelp! The Bloom is also 0-6-6. Grow at 2-2-4. So quite literally you can call the shots on Nitrogen and Calcium. That level of control hasn’t been around a great deal in our market. For the savvy grower this is a pretty nice tool.”

If you think you have the best hydroponic cannabis nutrients, tell us about your results!

Ever wondered what makes hydroponic nutrients "good" or "bad" for cannabis? Learn about the different types of ingredients that go into hydroponic nutrients to learn which ones work great for marijuana, and which ones to avoid!

Organic hydroponics cannabis

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    Blog Is It Possible To Use Hydroponics To Grow Organic Cannabis?

Is It Possible To Use Hydroponics To Grow Organic Cannabis?

Published: October 3rd, 2019
Categories: Cannabis Cultivation

In today’s world of agriculture and horticulture, the term “organic” means different things to different people. While the term has historically implied the use of natural fertilisers and the avoidance of synthetic chemicals and pesticides, it has recently been adopted by hydroponic growers as well.

Depending on your definition, “organic hydroponic systems” can be used to grow a variety of plants, including cannabis. However, these systems are substantially more difficult to establish and maintain than non-organic systems. Despite this, the appeal of organically grown product is enough to lure many cannabis growers into the sphere of organic hydroponics.


Traditional organic farming has long used soil as the growth medium. However, in the modern era, many growers have rejected the use of soil and fertilisers as a defining characteristic of organic growing.

In most of the world, for a product to be certified as “organic”, it must be grown in soil. However, in 2017, the US Department of Agriculture decided to allow some hydroponic and aquaponic crops to be certified as organic. As such, some growers are now adopting these techniques as part of their organic farming programmes.

There are valid reasons why many organic growers have stayed away from hydroponics for so long. For starters, many organic nutrients are not fully soluble. They have a tendency to leave behind residual sediment that can build up inside hydroponic systems. These residuals can clog up the system, affecting its ability to grow robust, healthy plants.

Moreover, organic growing typically requires the use of beneficial microbes, and thick, sticky sugars. Similar to nutrients, these materials tend to leave behind deposits that clog up hydroponic systems. But even worse, having these deposits in your system could lead to the growth of living, thriving bacterial colonies. These kinds of growths can also affect the amount of oxygen available to roots, and consequently, your plants’ ability to grow.

Nevertheless, the probability of running into these problems can be minimised by sticking to organic hydroponic systems that are known to have a higher success rate (like aquaponics and bioponics).


There are several benefits to growing cannabis hydroponically. Hydroponic plants tend to develop faster and produce a higher yield than in soil. This occurs because nutrients can be transferred to plants much more easily in hydroponic systems than in soil. You can expect a hydroponic grow to be roughly 20% faster and more productive than soil-grown cannabis.

Moreover, hydroponic systems are more efficient with resources than soil-based grows. Hydro saves both space and water. Less water is used because it is distributed efficiently to your plants, instead of just being soaked up by the soil. Moreover, because hydroponic plants are usually grown in a sealed and protected chamber, they are less susceptible to threats like pests and disease.


There are several ways in which hydroponic systems can be modified to be more organic. However, the two most viable, successful, and widely accepted organic hydroponic systems are aquaponics and bioponics.


Aquaponic systems are hydroponics that utilise nutrient-rich fish excrement to feed plants. They rely on a system of recirculating tanks, with fish usually being kept in a specific tank with a biofilter. This biofilter uses oxygen and biological catalysts to break down nutrient particles into more manageable pieces.

Neglecting to use a biofilter could result in the residual buildup of nutrients, leading to systemic problems like microbes and algae. Some systems are built to sidestep this problem by using substrate beds to house the microbial population and avoid the biofilter altogether.

A healthy, well-established aquaponic system is perfectly capable of growing cannabis. However, it may take some time for the system to build itself up to the point where it is capable of supporting flowering cannabis plants. Many other successful and organically certified (in the US) hydroponic systems use substrate beds to promote growth. These systems use a mix of substrates including coco coir, high-quality compost, perlite, peat, and bark.


Bioponic systems work similarly to aquaponic ones, yet they do not require fish to produce nutrients. Instead, this system feeds fully soluble nutrients to plants by first passing them through a specially designed biofilter. This biofilter houses both the oxygen and microbial life required to quickly process complex nutrients into simpler forms. Moreover, bioponic systems do not use any kind of substrate. Instead of relying on microbial activity inside of a substrate, these systems rely on their biofilter.

Using a biofilter and avoiding a substrate provides the advantage of keeping the root area clear of insoluble nutrients and microbial activity, making it more clean and hygienic. Because of this, bioponic systems are considered to be more “pure” than other organic hydroponic systems. Additionally, bioponic systems will not take as long to prepare for growing cannabis as aquaponics.


There are several differences between organic and non-organic hydroponic systems that must be carefully considered when making the switch. Apart from using different (organic) nutrients, growers will also have to be mindful of differences in irrigation, pH maintenance, and disease control.

For starters, an organic hydroponic system will need to be irrigated a little differently. Drip irrigation is advised so as to avoid oversaturating the root zone. A plant’s root zone should be finely balanced between the requirements of the microbes and the root system. Organic systems will require a higher level of oxygenation at the root zone due to the number of local microbes in the area.

EC (electrical conductivity) and pH level maintenance are also handled differently in organic hydroponic systems. For instance, an organic grow tends to have naturally higher pH levels than non-organic hydroponics. However, because pH stabilising acids are not considered organic, pH levels are best left to stabilise on their own. Moreover, because organic nutrients don’t conduct electricity, EC measurements may not be very accurate or useful.

Pest and disease control will also have to be managed more carefully in organic grows. Like pH solutions, synthetic pesticides and fungicides are not considered suitable for organics. Instead, many organic growers rely on neem oil and beneficial insects to ward off unwanted pests. For the organic grower, close inspection of plant material, monitoring of plant health, and the use of sticky traps, screen vents, and double-door entries is crucial to protecting plants.


These systems are undoubtedly more challenging and demanding to build, and perhaps maintain, than regular hydroponic systems. As such, they can also be much more frustrating and time-consuming. However, if organically grown cannabis is your objective, then they just might be the perfect choice.

Organic hydroponics provides us with a cleaner, more efficient way to grow cannabis. Click here to find out how!


trainwreck online

‘The Flight Attendant’ Is an Addicting Trainwreck You Need to Watch

@ kaylcobb Nov 18, 2020 at 8:00am

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The Flight Attendant

Like an expert bartender mixing the perfect drink, everything about The Flight Attendant seems specifically crafted to draw you in. A drama all about a reckless, drunken flight attendant waking up with a dead body in her bed? And that drunken mess being played by Kaley Cuoco, TV’s queen of relatable messes? Yes, please. But it’s the series’ awareness about that very craziness that makes HBO Max’s new original such a triumph. The Flight Attendant knows that it’s an addictive cocktail of a show, and it never overstays its drama-riddled welcome.

Developed by Steve Yockey and executive produced by Cuoco and Greg Berlanti, the miniseries is based on the novel of the same name by Chris Bohjalian. Both the series and the novel follow Cassandra Bowden, a booze-soaked heap of a person who loves to party and travel. Her life spent clubbing around the world is something she takes pride in until one morning when she wakes up in Bangkok, hungover, and laying next to the bloody corpse of her latest hookup. As Cassie flees the scene she has to figure out what really happened during her blacked out haze to clear her name — and along the way she’ll also have to question her relationship with her favorite vice, drinking.

It’s a story that’s practically made for the episodic world of television, but it’s Cuoco’s performance that truly sells the show. It was always a running joke that The Big Bang Theory‘s Penny was a messy party girl, but CBS only showed the network version of that trope. In The Flight Attendant Cuoco completely lets loose — and the result is an absolute joy to watch. Cuoco commits to Cassie’s constantly terrible ideas fully, flinging herself from cleaning up a crime scene to having a panic attack in an airplane bathroom. Every one of Cassie’s decisions is dumber than the last, yet Cuoco sells her unending desperation so well you can’t help feeling sorry for her, just as you’re screaming for her to stop.

Part of that has to do with the demons Cuoco’s performance so expertly hides. In the first moments of The Flight Attendant, Cassie’s hard drinking and constantly partying ways feel like something that can be shrugged off with a laugh. Downing a shot while serving customers at work? That’s just Cassie. Yet as she dives deeper into this murder it becomes more and more difficult to brush off Cassie’s constant need for a bottle. This woman undoubtedly has a drinking problem — yet Cuoco does an excellent job of using her charm to cover up that dark truth just enough so that you always fall under Cassie’s spell, just like everyone else in her life.

More On:

kaley cuoco

Kaley Cuoco Avoids Any Signs Of Career Turbulence Thanks To ‘The Flight Attendant’

The 10 Best TV Shows of November 2020

‘The Flight Attendant’ Has a Big Plan for Zosia Mamet’s Character

New Movies + Shows to Watch this Weekend: ‘The Flight Attendant’ on HBO + More

Now more than ever we need shows that are all-consuming and addicting while also being fun and light. On every count The Flight Attendant excels. Like a night plastered at your favorite bar, it may not be the most important or essential show this year. But, god, is it a blast.

The first three episodes of The Flight Attendant premiere on HBO Max Thursday, November 26, followed by the launch of two new episodes on December 3, two episodes on December 10, and the finale episode on December 17

Wondering what the deal is with The Flight Attendant, HBO Max's new show starring Kaley Cuoco? Check out Decider's review of The Flight Attendant.

Train Wreck Flavor Vape Pen Cartridge THC

Trainwreck by HONEY ® has characteristic anticipated effects of mind expansion. For people who are experiencing undue amounts of stress, Trainwreck by HONEY ® opens space in the mind and allows you to experience the feeling of having more room to process. With these elevating effects, one can experience a lighter mood. Effects range from expansive, to happy, motivated, focused and creative

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HONEY® products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Desired outcomes are characteristic anticipated effects crowdsourced from users that include any physiological effect (a temporary effect on the body related to the consumption of cannabis) that is common to or expected from the particular cannabis strain. Consult with your physician or other health care professional before using HoneyVape™ products.

For people who are experiencing undue amounts of stress, Trainwreck opens space in the mind and allows you to experience the feeling of having more room to process.


cbd cheese

Cheese CBD (Dinafem) feminized

Cheese CBD by Dinafem is a brilliant, CBD-rich hybrid that blends the awesome flavour of Cheese strains with potent medicinal properties. If you want a superb smoke but without the “knock out” effect of some other strains, Cheese CBD should be a top choice. Her good yields and the easiness to grow her add to the appeal of this great CBD strain.

Cheese CBD (Dinafem) feminized
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Dinafem – Cheese CBD: CBD Strain That Pleases with Awesome Cheese Flavour

With their Cheese CBD, bred from a select Cheese strain and a CBD-rich strain, Dinafem presents to us a wonderful CBD strain that keeps all the great traits of the original Cheese including the unique Cheese flavour and aroma. The result is a medicinal CBD strain with a nice balance of THC and CBD that isn’t just ideal for medicinal users but which can equally please even the pickiest of cannabis connoisseurs.

Dinafem’s Cheese CBD is a 50% Sativa/Indica hybrid that doesn’t require any special skills if you want to grow her. In fact, she does best if you only feed her in moderation. When you grow her indoors you can expect some good yields of up to 500g/m². Outdoors, in optimal conditions, yields can be as high as up to 1000g per plant. The plant will grow a number of symmetric branches that will have thin, long leaves. If there is one drawback with growing Cheese CBD it’s her intense aroma so you may want to make sure to have adequate air filtering in place should this be a concern. With a flowering time of 50-60 days, Cheese CBD doesn’t demand too much patience from the grower either.

What sets Cheese CBD apart from many other CBD strains is her excellent flavour profile. She shines with the aroma of Cheese blended with floral notes, which make her an excellent choice for medicinal users who want potent medicine while at the same time being able to enjoy a deeply satisfying smoke experience. Cheese CBD provides a moderately potent, yet balanced effect that hits fast and is long lasting. 8% of CBD and only 7% of THC in her smoke ensures a true “happy smoke” without any undesired effects like that from high THC strains. This is a good medicinal plant that can help with ailments such as muscle tension, anxiety or eating problems.

Dinafem’s Cheese CBD is a superb medicinal plant that is simply all-around satisfying. With her excellent taste and nicely balanced effect she is a top plant to grow if you want first-grade medicine but don’t want to accept any compromises.

Cheese CBD (Dinafem) feminized data sheet

Brand Dinafem
Genetics 50% Indica / 50% Sativa
Parents Cheese x pure CBD
Flowering Time 8-9 weeks
THC 7%
CBD 8%
CBD:THC 1.1 : 1
Yield (Indoor) 450-500 gr/m²
Yield (Outdoor) 950-1000 gr/plant
Height (Outdoor) 250cm
Available as Feminized seeds
Flowering Type Photoperiod
Sex Feminized

Mijn eerste ervaring
Ik heb mijn eerst buitenplant gezet. Het is goed mee gevallen. Lange duur van bloeitijd voor het klimaat in dit land is het te vochtig. Heel sterke en kruidige geur. Ik kan niet wachten tot het gerijpt is in wekpotten. Heb nog 2 scheuten kunnen nemen en deze heb ik nog als mooi trofee en mooi foto. Ik ben blij dat ik geleerd heb ook dankzij zamnesia kweekgids

No customer questions for the moment.

Please note that if your country is not on our general shipping list, we’re unable to ship any item on our website to it. For more information check out the list here: Ordering & Shipping

Cheese CBD by Dinafem brings us the great flavour of Cheese and Skunk but with a pleasantly moderate effect, making her the ideal choice for medicinal users.

Cbd cheese

Cheese CBD cannabis seeds by Dinafem Seeds belong to a feminised, 50% Sativa / 50% Indica marijuana strain that originates from the cross of a Cheese and a CBD-rich strain. Cheese is a Skunk-derived strain with unique flavours and aromas that cannot be missed. That’s why we have decided to create a high-CBD hybrid where all the typical Cheese traits can be found; all except for its effect, which is now a bit less mind-blowing, allowing everyone to enjoy this marvellous strain without having to worry about its strong effect.

Connoisseurs keen on clearly defined flavours and aromas will hit it right when selecting Cheese CBD. In fact, its intensely fresh and flowery fragrance has already conquered many palates and hearts. The overall balance of this innovative cannabis seed is sure to seduce cannabis-lovers willing to relax deeply and lovingly. It is also a great option for a wide range of therapeutic purposes.

Nobody should miss the chance to see Cheese CBD cannabis seeds grow and evolve into heavy-yielding cannabis plants with plenty of regular, symmetric branches covered in thin, elongated leaves. If fertilized moderately, it is sure to show its full potential. However, extreme care should be taken given its extremely strong scent. To avoid problems in this regard, it is advisable to use a top-quality anti-odour system. For medical use, better use organic farming techniques.

Cheese CBD is a cannabis plant that possesses really deep flavours and aromas, with clear hints of flowers and Cheese. The balanced effect it provides is rather long-lasting, moderately potent and brings a major boost of happiness. It is also an excellent choice for people who need to stimulate their appetite, reduce anxiety or alleviate muscle tension.

Characteristics of Cheese CBD cannabis seeds by Dinafem Seeds

Suitable for indoors and outdoors
Sex: feminized
Genotype: 50% Indica/50% Sativa
Cross: Cheese x pure CBD
Indoor flowering period: 50-60 days
Outdoor harvest: early/mid-October
Indoor yield: 500 g/m2
Outdoor yield: 1000 g/plant
Outdoor height: up to 2.50 m
THC: 7%
CBD: 8%
Ratio THC/CBD: 1:1

<p>Cheese CBD cannabis seeds by Dinafem Seeds belong to a feminised, 50% Sativa / 50% Indica marijuana strain that originates from the cross of a Cheese and a CBD-rich strain. Cheese is a Skunk-derived strain with unique flavours and aromas that cannot be


marijuana effects high blood pressure

How does cannabis affect blood pressure?

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  1. Does marijuana lower or raise blood pressure?
  2. What are the cardiovascular effects of cannabis?
  3. Weed and blood pressure medication
  4. Other effects of weed on blood pressure

Since smoking a joint can lead to a relaxing high, you might wonder about cannabis use and its effect on blood pressure. We know that weed can make your eyes red , but does it also raise or lower blood pressure, or does it not have any effect at all? If you have high blood pressure, is marijuana safe to consume?

Here we’ll address how smoking weed, including medical marijuana, could factor into your blood pressure levels.

Does marijuana lower or raise blood pressure?

To answer this question, we should focus on two of the primary cannabinoids present in cannabis : cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Both may exert an influence on blood pressure levels.

Dr. Bonni Goldstein, a medical adviser to Weedmaps and the director of Canna-Centers in Lawndale, California, outlined the potential effects of THC on blood pressure:

“THC can affect blood pressure depending on the dose, the route of administration, a person’s experience with THC, and a person’s underlying health. Healthy volunteers that took THC had an increase in heart rate and decrease in blood pressure. In studies where people used THC while lying down, they had elevated blood pressure. When they stood up, their blood pressure dropped and they experienced low blood pressure.”

These sudden drops in blood pressure, also known as white outs or green outs, may indeed be linked to cannabis use. Dr. Melanie Bone, a board-certified OB-GYN and cannabis specialist who practices in West Palm Beach, Florida, told Weedmaps that “cannabis may cause a drop in blood pressure on standing — known as postural hypotension.” This type of drop in blood pressure is not desirable, as it can cause vertigo and even fainting. So, when we talk about “lowering blood pressure,” we do not necessarily consider that effect beneficial to health.

Both THC and CBD may lower blood pressure in different ways. However, neither CBD nor THC should be considered a medical treatment for high blood pressure. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

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And how does CBD affect blood pressure? The consensus is that CBD tends to relax the blood vessels and decrease anxiety, which ultimately leads to a lowering of blood pressure. This type of blood pressure reduction is more favorable, as it is associated with decreased levels of anxiety. Both THC and CBD may lower blood pressure in different ways. However, based on available research, neither CBD nor THC should be considered a medical treatment for high blood pressure.

What are the cardiovascular effects of cannabis?

Another frequently asked question about cannabis and cardiovascular health is: can weed cause a heart attack?

First, let’s again distinguish between the cannabinoids THC and CBD. For example, CBD oils containing trace levels of THC may have very different effects than smoking a high-THC strain of marijuana. Various studies have indicated that THC may have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health, whereas CBD could be helpful to the heart.

Goldstein added, “CBD does not appear to have the same risks for the heart as THC and in fact, appears to be somewhat cardioprotective.” To support this assertion, Goldstein cited a 2010 study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in which researchers concluded that CBD has therapeutic potential in treating complications of diabetes, as well as some cardiovascular disorders. Most notably, CBD could reduce inflammation, a condition that can ultimately damage the blood vessels, arteries, and vital organs. So, if you apply CBD oil to your skin or swallow a few tablespoons, the impact could differ greatly than if you smoked a blunt.

To this point, there is some research that suggests smoking THC could directly or indirectly lead to a heart attack. One 2019 study titled “The Cardiovascular Effects of Marijuana: Are the Potential Adverse Effects Worth the High?” and published in the Journal of the Missouri State Medical Association showed that some people experienced a heart attack within an hour of smoking cannabis.

Bone, however, argued, “On careful study, many of the patients also smoked cigarettes and were obese, making it hard to draw absolute conclusions. Also, the observations were made on cannabis of unknown origin, not cannabis from a dispensary.” The fact that the cannabis did not come from a registered dispensary is significant, as there is no available lab testing to determine what other compounds may have been present.

The bottom line is that there have been studies demonstrating a questionable association between smoking weed and having a heart attack, and more research is necessary.

Weed and blood pressure medication

You might also be wondering, what if you’re smoking weed while taking blood pressure medication? Will there be an adverse reaction? If you are smoking THC-rich cannabis and taking medication for high blood pressure, the answer is that there could be.

Goldstein explained, “Smoking cannabis can be harmful for those with heart disease or hypertension since the smoke contains carbon monoxide. This gas binds to the hemoglobin in red blood cells, displacing oxygen off of the red blood cells which results in less oxygen going to the body’s tissues, including the heart. People with heart disease or high blood pressure should avoid smoking.”

Instead, Goldstein recommends other methods of cannabis use, such as sublingual tinctures or edibles, which she says are safe to use if someone is on blood pressure medication. Further, Bone stressed that people who use cannabis and are on blood pressure medications need to be mindful of the possibility of an interaction with other prescription medications. This means monitoring blood pressure and reporting any dizziness to your doctor, who can adjust your dosages accordingly.

People who use cannabis and are on blood pressure medications need to be mindful of the possibility of an interaction with other prescription medications. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

Image lightbox

In particular, the blood thinner warfarin was shown in a 2017 study published in the journal Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports to interact with cannabidiol (CBD) in certain epileptic individuals . In line with Bone’s advice, researchers concluded that patient lab work should be monitored closely.

While it is possible for warfarin and other medications to interact with cannabis, there are no guarantees, and the 2017 study focused on patients with epilepsy rather than on the general population. As Dr. Bone reported, “In my private practice, I have not encountered a significant negative interaction between blood pressure medication and cannabis.”

Other effects of weed on blood pressure

There may be other effects of marijuana on blood pressure that health practitioners have yet to discover. All potential effects depend on the individual’s existing health problems, especially co-morbid conditions such as diabetes and obesity.

Can people without these conditions safely indulge in marijuana? A healthy individual’s body may appear as a well-oiled machine, but Bone disputes that analogy, pointing out that, “Unlike a car, where we replace the brakes or tires, the heart never gets a vacation and the blood vessels need to keep working forever. And the nervous system, which directs the show like a conductor, is on duty 24/7.”

Moderation, then, may be key in integrating a cannabis regimen into your healthcare plan. Consult with your physician before you begin using cannabis or CBD products and discuss any medications you are currently taking.

Learn how cannabis affects blood pressure and what questions you should ask your doctor before starting a regimen.

Marijuana linked to high blood pressure risk

Research we’re watching

People who smoke marijuana may face a higher risk of dying of complications of high blood pressure than people who never use the drug, new research suggests.

The study included 1,213 people ages 20 and older who were part of a larger national health survey that began in 2005. Those who said they’d ever used marijuana (57%) were considered users. Researchers then looked at data on different causes of death in 2011 and estimated the association between marijuana use with death from high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.

They concluded that marijuana users had a higher risk of death related to high blood pressure than non-users. In addition to increasing the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure can lead to kidney disease and heart failure. However, the estimates of marijuana use may not be reliable, since the researchers don’t know if the participants used marijuana continuously after first trying it. On the flip side, people may underreport their use of illegal substances.

Still, the results suggest that the cardiovascular risks of marijuana use may be similar to smoking cigarettes. The study was published in the Aug. 9, 2017, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

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As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

People who smoke marijuana may be more likely to die from complications of high blood pressure than non-users of the drug.


aloha strain

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Aloha strain

This is a good solid sativa overall. Probably the best smelling and tasting as well. After two 2′ bong hits; Very cerebral at first and head will space out, you’ll be easily distracted. Nice body high, energetic however, your mind drifts and is hard to focus. Not a good at work strain. I would add, mild paranoia, but last about 10 mins. after about 20 mins, body becomes really relaxed and you feel creative, focused but still maintain a cerebral high. The thing that sets this girl apart is the long lasting effects. Going on an hour and a half and I’m still feeling like I just smoked. Great strain and Sativa overall. Use on a day where you can relax and chill. #MMJindepth

Aloha is a 100% pure sativa strain whose genetics are widely unknown amongst the medical cannabis community due to secrecy of its breeders. This dank bud boasts a THC level ranging from 18-24% on average and a myriad of sativa effects. The Aloha high is often described by users as an upbeat, ener…


hindu kush weed growing stages

Hindu Kush


Grow or smoke Hindu Kush and you’re participating in a piece of cannabis heritage since this weed is based on the strains smoked since pre-history. A western spur of the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush is the range of mountains that runs through central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. This Indica strain forms part of the genetic package of many modern award-winning skunk-style weeds.

Hindu Kush has an almost hashlike smell and taste when you smoke it, hardly surprising since Afghani hash is extracted from this plant. The flavor also has earthy, sweet tones with a hint of spice. The high is mentally relaxing with a fairly heavy body stone. It’s a great evening smoke if you want to chill out, listen to music or watch a movie. In medical use, it can help with stress, muscular pain and insomnia.

Hindu Kush seeds produce bushy plants of shortish height, about 100 to 120 centimetres, with dark green, palmate leaves on thick stems. The buds are on the large side and become sticky with resin as they develop. THC content ranges from 15 to a powerful 20 percent.

Indoors, Hindu Kush weed grows well with the SOG method and you can expect yields of up to 400 grams per square metre. Flowering time is seven to nine weeks.

With its mountain origin, the plants are quite robust so you can grow it outdoors. As with all marijuana plants, the more sunshine it gets, the better it will do. Harvest time after a late spring planting is around the end of September.

Hindu Kush is a good all-rounder that you can grow indoors or outdoors. Its typically Indica hit is ideal for relaxing and if you like smoking hash, you’ll enjoy the taste of this weed.

Hindu Kush is a big part of marijuana history. As part of the genetics of many award winners, pick Hindu Kush seeds for a potent and hardy Indica strain.

Hindu Kush


Introduction: Hindu Kush Feminized is a short and stacked full blooded indica that is extremely potent, and not for the light hearted. A very easy to grow strain with THC levels reaching upto 20%. She has bold, earthy musky flavors with a serious pungency flowering in just 9 weeks making her a fast flowering cultivar.

Genetics: After backcrossing the original landrace seeds that were brought back from the Hindu Kush mountains to Holland, we created a lineage that expresses the best of this heavyweight indica landrace. A super sturdy and reliable strain that performs incredible well in all climates.

Strain Characteristics: She likes to stay low with short internodal spacing, with thick branching and dark green, waxy fan leaves. Hindu Kush Feminized will grow one main central cola, surrounded by short side branches that become full with fat dense buds. Thanks to her uniform and homogeneous nature, she is incredibly well suited for Sea of Green, where she is capable of yielding 400 -450 g/m² of rock hard buds in 9 weeks.

When flowering begins, this girl won’t grow much taller and will finish at a medium height, showcasing a stocky and compact profile. She is very easy to grow, requiring little maintenance making her a great choice for those new to growing Cannabis. Her aroma is a classic pungent, musky Kush that is highly aromatic with a mild spice. THC levels can hit the 20% level, making Hindu Kush Feminized best suited for those with a high tolerance to knock out indica effects.

Experiencing this strain: If you enjoy strains that lay you out in no time, then look no further than Hindu Kush Feminized. It will not take long before this full blooded indica has her grip on you, making her a favourite amongst medical patients looking for therapeutic relief. Her effects are powerful and will cause a heaviness to run through your entire body, slowly depleting you of any motivation and zapping your energy. Best suited for night times, or professional smokers only.

Her flavours can be described as musty, dank, earthy and sweet hash. A very refined taste that coats the mouth and will have you licking your lips after every pull of a joint. Medical patients may find this strain useful for treating muscle spasms, back pain, joint pain, inflammation, reducing anxiety levels, treating insomnia and any other therapeutic use.

What makes this strain so great: Experience this high vibration land race from the Himalayas, and let her take you over with her extreme potency. Ideal for small spaces, Sea of Green and medical patients across the world.

Hindu Kush Описание Introduction: Hindu Kush Feminized is a short and stacked full blooded indica that is extremely potent, and not for the light hearted. A very easy to grow strain with THC


how to plant borage seeds

How to Grow Borage for Beautiful Flowers and a Cucumber Flavor

The Spruce / Marie Iannotti

Borage is an easy growing annual herb plant with vivid blue flowers and leaves and flowers that have the flavor and scent of cucumbers. It is considered an herb but is often grown as a flower in vegetable gardens where it attracts pollinating bees and is considered a good companion plant for tomatoes, squash, and strawberries. It’s even supposed to deter tomato hornworms and improve the flavor of tomatoes growing nearby.

Borage is a somewhat gangly plant, but you barely notice it because the star-shaped flowers are so vibrant. They start pink and turn a true blue, hanging in downward facing clusters. Even the fuzzy white buds are attractive. Both the flowers and the leaves are edible, with a cucumber-like flavor. Use the leaves while they are young because as the plant matures, the stalks and leaves become covered with a prickly fuzz.

Botanical Name

Common Names

Borage, Bee Bush, Bee Bread, Starflower,

Hardiness Zone

Borage is an annual plant, so USDA Hardiness Zones do not apply. Although the original plants will not come back next year, they do self-seed readily. Don’t worry. They are easy enough to pull out and won’t become a nuisance.

Sun Exposure

Borage grows best in full sun to partial shade. Growing borage plants in full sun will give you the most flowers and the stockiest plants.

Mature Size

Borage can become a fairly tall plant, reaching a size of 18-36 inches (45 – 90cm) H x 9-24 inches (22-60cm) W. They can become rangy and floppy when they get top-heavy with flowers. Growing borage in full sun will help make for sturdier plants.

Bloom Period

Borage can bloom from late spring through summer although the plants will start to decline if they are not deadheaded and are left to go to seed. Staggering your planting times will give you a longer period of bloom and provide a longer harvest time. If the flowers fade before you have a chance to deadhead them, the plants will re-seed on their own.

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The Spruce / Autumn Wood

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The Spruce / Autumn Wood

Design Suggestions Using Borage

As mentioned above, borage is often grown in the vegetable or herb garden because it is such a magnet for bees and other pollinators and because it is considered a good growing companion for other plants. However, it is equally beautiful in a cottage-style flower garden, where it has room to self-seed. Harvesting or deadheading will keep it in bloom longer.

Planting Borage

Borage grows best if directly seeded. Barely cover the seeds with soil and keep well watered. The plants are tolerant of any type of soil, even poor dry soil. However, a sunny location with rich, well-draining soil is optimal. Amending the soil with some type of organic matter, such as compost, will give your borage plants a boost.

If you choose to start seed indoors, transplant before they become pot bound. Plan to start seedlings about three to four weeks before the last expected frost and don’t transplant outdoors until the soil has warmed and the plants have been hardened off.

Once seedlings are about 2-3 inches tall, thin to approximately 12 inches apart.

Caring for Borage Plants

Borage is open-pollinated and it is very easy to collect and save the seed from flowers allowed to remain on the plant and turn brown. Borage self-seeds readily if allowed to go to seed naturally. Excess plants are very easy to remove from the garden.

Harvesting Borage

Plants in poor soil will benefit from periodic feeding with any fertilizer labeled for use on edible plants. Something with a high phosphorous number (the middle number on a fertilizer package) will help keep them in flower. Plants can be pinched or pruned, to encourage branching and keep them shorter.

Harvest leaves and flowers as needed. Older leaves will get prickly, making harvesting anything on the plant a bit unpleasant. However, the flowers do add a bit of flavor and a great deal of color to salads, soups, dips & spreads, open-face sandwiches, beverages, and ice cubes. As with all edible flowers, use sparingly until you know how they affect you, especially if you have plant allergies. Borage is also said to have a mild laxative effect.

Suggested Borage Varieties

Borago officinalis is probably the only borage you will see offered by seed companies.

Pest & Problems of Borage Plants

Borage is virtually problem-free. Nothing wants to get too close to those scratchy leaves.

Tips for growing borage, an herb with the flavor of cucumbers and brilliant blue flowers. It's beautiful and delicious, and it even sows itself.

Borage Herb: How To Grow Borage

The borage herb is an old fashioned plant that can get up to 2 feet (61 cm.) tall, or more. It is native to the Middle East and has an ancient history in war as an enhancement for bravery and courage. Growing borage provides the gardener with cucumber-flavored leaves for tea and other beverages as well as bright starry blue flowers for decorating salads. All parts of the plant, except the roots, are flavorful and have culinary or medicinal uses.

Borage Plant Info

While not as common as thyme or basil, borage herb (Borago officinalis) is a unique plant for the culinary garden. It grows quickly as an annual but will colonize a corner of the garden by self-seeding and reappearing year after year.

June and July are heralded by the presence of the borage flower, an appealing, small, brilliant blue bloom with attracting qualities. Indeed, the plant should be include in the butterfly garden and brings pollinators to your veggies. The oval leaves are hairy and rough with the lower foliage pushing 6 inches in length. The borage plant may grow 12 or more inches wide in a tall bushy habit.

Growing Borage

Herb cultivation just takes a little gardening know how. Grow borage in an herb or flower garden. Prepare a garden bed that is well tilled with average organic matter. Ensure that the soil is well drained and in a medium pH range. Sow seeds directly into the garden after the last date of frost. Plant seeds ¼ to ½ inch (6 ml. – 1 cm.) under the soil in rows 12 inches (30+ cm.) apart. Thin the borage herb to at least 1 foot (30+ cm.) when the plants measure 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm.) tall.

Planting borage with strawberries attracts bees and increases the yield of fruit. It has limited culinary use in today’s foods, but the borage flower is often used as a garnish. Traditionally the borage plant was used to treat many ailments, from jaundice to kidney problems. In medicinal use today it is limited, but the seeds are a source of linolenic acid. Borage flowers are also used in potpourris or candied for use in confections.

Borage can be perpetuated by allowing the flowers to go to seed and self sow. Pinching the terminal growth will force a bushier plant but may sacrifice some of the flowers. Borage herb is not a fussy plant and has been known to grow in refuse piles and highway ditches. Be assured you want the plant to regrow annually or remove the flowers before it seeds. Growing borage requires a dedicated space in the home garden.

Borage Herb Harvest

Sowing the seeds every four weeks will ensure a ready supply of borage flowers. The leaves may be picked at any time and used fresh. Dried leaves have little of the characteristic flavor so the plant is best consumed after harvest. Leave the flowers alone if you are hosting a honeybee colony. The blooms produce an excellent flavored honey.

The borage herb is an old fashioned plant that can get up to 2 feet or more. Growing borage provides the gardener with flavored leaves for tea and other beverages. Learn more in this article.


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    Hemp Embassy Vienna , Vienna

    Hemp Embassy Vienna is located in Vienna. Choose to start, finish, or center your holiday on a trip to Hemp Embassy Vienna by using our Vienna road trip planning tool.

    Sunday Closed
    Monday 12pm – 8pm
    Tuesday 12pm – 8pm
    Wednesday 12pm – 8pm
    Thursday 12pm – 8pm
    Friday 12pm – 8pm
    Saturday 12pm – 8pm

    Esterhazygasse 34 Ecke Mariahilfer Strasse,
    Vienna 1060 Austria

    Street parking available

    Hemp Embassy Vienna reviews

    There’s only one room, the one that is to be seen in the pictures, but this one room makes it all. The most interesting thing is that you can smell all the plants and see from where they are. The. more »

    I stumbled on this embassy by accident and so glad that I did! Upstairs is really nice shop where everybody can find something from their great offers. Downstairs is real gem. Bunch of all kind of. more »

    The Hemp Embassy Vienna is similar to the Cannabis College in Amsterdam. There isn’t much historical stuff to see at the moment, I guess more things will be added later on but the plants are. more »

    Visit Hemp Embassy Vienna in Austria and tour many such Museums at Inspirock. Get the Ratings & Reviews, maps of nearby attractions & contact details

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    storing cannabis pollen

    Innovations in Cannabis Pollen Long-Term Storage and Its Germination

    In a new study, partly funded by the Canadian government, researchers have developed a method for storing cannabis pollen for extended periods of time. They have also found a way to establish the viability of the germination of the pollen of cannabis plants. In this article I will define cannabis pollen, will explain how it is transferred to plants and how it is collected and stored. I will cite the study and explain why this development is so important for cannabis breeders and for the entire cannabis industry.

    What is Cannabis Pollen?

    Cannabis pollen, crucial for the generation of seeds, is the powdery, dusty, typically yellowish material produced by the male cannabis plants or by the male flowers of hermaphroditic, seed-producing plants.

    How Is Cannabis Pollen Transferred to Plants?

    The pollen must be transferred to the female flower for fertilization and for the production of seeds. It can be transferred naturally for cannabis grown outdoors; by wind, rain and via insects. For those plants grown indoors, the pollen is transferred artificially. Cannabis breeders take the pollen from a male plant and rub it on the hairs of the female plant. This takes place approximately halfway through the flowering cycle. Cloning is another method used for reproduction.

    How Is Cannabis Pollen Collected?

    As the pollen sacs develop on the male flowers, they need to be closely monitored by the breeders. It is very important to remove the pollen when the sacs are just about to open as this is the crucial time when the pollen is the most viable.

    The best way to collect the pollen is to remove an entire cluster of a male flower and dry it out completely in a sealed container. This should take several days. Next, the cluster is placed on a micron screen with wax or parchment paper underneath. The dried cluster is shaken lightly until it separates from the rest of the plant and falls though the screen onto the paper. Because moisture has such a deleterious affect on the viability of cannabis pollen, many breeders mix flour with their pollen to keep it dry for long-term storage; 4:1 Flour: Pollen.

    The Importance of Long-Term Cannabis Pollen Storage

    • For breeders who worry about an unforeseen loss of their genetic material, long-term storage of cannabis pollen may be crucial for their continued success. It is very difficult to replace genetic material if it is lost.
    • It may also help to provide uniformity and quality within cannabis strains from one growing cycle to another.
    • It provides a lot of flexibility for cannabis breeders all over the world who can share their genetic material.
    • For those cannabis consumers who depend on a particular strain, long-term storage means that the genetic material many be available for many years in the future.

    The Study

    The study, Development and Optimization of a Germination Assay and Long-Term Storage for Cannabis Sativa Pollen, was conducted in March, 2020 at the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, CANADA. It was authored by Daniel Gaudet, Igor Kovalchuk, Narendra Singh Yadav, Aleksei Sorokin and Andriy Bilichak. It was published by the Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) on May 23, 2020.

    Study Abstract

    The ability to analyze the viability of cannabis pollen and a means with which to store it for extended periods is important to cannabis researchers, but even more important for breeders. This aids in the maintenance of the germplasm* to use for breeding new strains or for biotechnological and gene editing utilization.

    *Germplasm contains the information of the genetic makeup of a species. It is the living tissue from which new plants can be grown and includes seeds, tissue and pollen.

    Results and Discussion of The Study

    Pollen Germination Assay

    • Researchers employed a standardized pollen germination assay or analysis (PGA) to determine the viability of cannabis pollen before using it for pollination. In order to get an adequate representation of the germination profile, time-lapse photography was used and then evaluated using a microscope.
    • Cannabis pollen readily germinated using the Pollen Germination Media (PGM). The researchers evaluated the use of both a liquid and solid media for germination and found that they produced comparable success rates. However, the pollen tubes were more easily visible when a liquid media was used rather than the solid agar medium.
    • The study found that pollen collected during different growth stages has different periods of longevity. Researchers collected the pollen during four different stages of flower development over 21 days; Early, Mid, Mid-Late and Late. The only stage that did not lose viability after 7 days in storage at 4°C (39.2°F) was Mid. The pollen collected during the Mid flowering stage retained its viability for the longest period which was 22% of pollen grains after 21 days stored at 4°C.
    • The researchers decoded the bicellular nature of the cannabis pollen through the use of DAPI staining; a popular blue fluorescent counterstain solution used to stain DNA and nuclear content in fluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging

    Cryopreservation Storage System

    The second part of the study involved the development of a long-term cryopreservation storage system. Pollen cryopreservation is commonly used to preserve the germplasm of both agriculturally and medicinally significant species of plants. It has become clear that there is an optimum water content associated with longevity which is increased by reducing both the moisture and temperature levels. Liquid nitrogen is typically used because it is safe, inexpensive and it retains a temperature which preserves the integrity of the pollen.

    It is interesting to note that cannabis pollen stored in liquid nitrogen without the adequate reduction in moisture did not germinate. Pollen cells with high levels of moisture do not survive cryogenic storage, apparently because of ice formation between cells. Therefore, pollen cells must be dried to the point where no freezable water is present. Pollen that was adequately desiccated before being stored in liquid nitrogen also did not germinate. This led to the theory that baked wheat flour would be a suitable cryoprotectant during long-term cannabis storage.

    Sufficient moisture was removed from the cannabis pollen before combining it with baked whole wheat flour and storing it in liquid nitrogen. Upon removing the pollen from the mixture, researchers applied it to flowering female plants which resulted in successful seed formation in all the test subjects. Viable germination lasted for 4 months which implies that it may be possible to preserve cannabis pollen indefinitely. This is invaluable for maintaining a large collection of genetics.

    In a new study, researchers have developed a method for storing cannabis pollen for extended periods of time.

    Scientists Create New Method to Store Marijuana Pollen on a Long-Term Basis

    Researchers have developed a way to determine the viability of pollen germination in marijuana plants, as well as a simple method of storing cannabis pollen for long periods of time, according to a new study.

    For marijuana cultivators, the results could prove useful, helping them avoid potentially costly mistakes in the process and ensuring consistency and quality in their crops across growing cycles.

    Ensuring long-term storage of pollen is important for cultivators because of the central role it plays in generating seeds. Taking pollen from a male plant and rubbing it on the hairs of a female plant—typically about halfway through the flowering cycle—will enable the female plant to produce buds that contains seeds, which along with cloning is one way to propagate and maintain strains.

    The study, which was partly funded by the Canadian government, has “several implications,” co-author Igor Kovalchuk told Marijuana Moment.

    First, the team created an “assay to test viability of such pollen before the use for pollination.”

    They accomplished that by modifying an existing method of assessing germination viability, using a liquid media instead of a solid medium, which “resulted in better image acquisition and quantification of germination,” according to the study.

    Perhaps even more consequential for growers, however, is the development of a long-term storage system for cannabis pollen.

    “We have provided an easy protocol for cryopreservation using desiccation combined with baked wheat flour and subsequent long-term storage of cannabis pollen in liquid nitrogen.”

    “This one is big,” Kovalchuk said. “Our protocol allows nearly indefinite storage,” which is “valuable for maintaining large collection of genetics.”

    To preserve the pollen, the researchers removed any moisture, added the result to baked whole wheat flour and preserving agents and then froze it in liquid nitrogen. When they removed the mixture from the liquid nitrogen and applied it to flowering female plants, it resulted in successful seed formation in all of the subjects.

    The team also discovered that pollen can be more or less viable at different stages of the flowering period. The optimal time to extract pollen seems to be during the mid-flowering stage. At that point, it retained “viability the longest with 22 percent of pollen grains successfully germinating after 21 days” of storage in a low-temperature environment.

    “In conclusion, we have standardized a simple assay for quickly assessing pollen germination in Cannabis sativa,” the study states. “By using our [modified assay], we have demonstrated the loss of pollen viability over time when stored at 4 degrees Celsius, and suggested an optimal time during flower development for pollen collection to maximize longevity during storage.”

    “Finally, we have provided an easy protocol for cryopreservation using desiccation combined with baked wheat flour and subsequent long-term storage of cannabis pollen in liquid nitrogen,” it concludes.

    Featured image by Eric Limon/Shutterstock

    This article has been republished from Marijuana Moment under a content-sharing agreement. Read the original article here.

    Researchers have developed a way to determine the viability of pollen germination in marijuana plants, according to a new study.