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hemp embassy vienna

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    Hemp Embassy Vienna , Vienna

    Hemp Embassy Vienna is located in Vienna. Choose to start, finish, or center your holiday on a trip to Hemp Embassy Vienna by using our Vienna road trip planning tool.

    Sunday Closed
    Monday 12pm – 8pm
    Tuesday 12pm – 8pm
    Wednesday 12pm – 8pm
    Thursday 12pm – 8pm
    Friday 12pm – 8pm
    Saturday 12pm – 8pm

    Esterhazygasse 34 Ecke Mariahilfer Strasse,
    Vienna 1060 Austria

    Street parking available

    Hemp Embassy Vienna reviews

    There’s only one room, the one that is to be seen in the pictures, but this one room makes it all. The most interesting thing is that you can smell all the plants and see from where they are. The. more »

    I stumbled on this embassy by accident and so glad that I did! Upstairs is really nice shop where everybody can find something from their great offers. Downstairs is real gem. Bunch of all kind of. more »

    The Hemp Embassy Vienna is similar to the Cannabis College in Amsterdam. There isn’t much historical stuff to see at the moment, I guess more things will be added later on but the plants are. more »

    Visit Hemp Embassy Vienna in Austria and tour many such Museums at Inspirock. Get the Ratings & Reviews, maps of nearby attractions & contact details

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    storing cannabis pollen

    Innovations in Cannabis Pollen Long-Term Storage and Its Germination

    In a new study, partly funded by the Canadian government, researchers have developed a method for storing cannabis pollen for extended periods of time. They have also found a way to establish the viability of the germination of the pollen of cannabis plants. In this article I will define cannabis pollen, will explain how it is transferred to plants and how it is collected and stored. I will cite the study and explain why this development is so important for cannabis breeders and for the entire cannabis industry.

    What is Cannabis Pollen?

    Cannabis pollen, crucial for the generation of seeds, is the powdery, dusty, typically yellowish material produced by the male cannabis plants or by the male flowers of hermaphroditic, seed-producing plants.

    How Is Cannabis Pollen Transferred to Plants?

    The pollen must be transferred to the female flower for fertilization and for the production of seeds. It can be transferred naturally for cannabis grown outdoors; by wind, rain and via insects. For those plants grown indoors, the pollen is transferred artificially. Cannabis breeders take the pollen from a male plant and rub it on the hairs of the female plant. This takes place approximately halfway through the flowering cycle. Cloning is another method used for reproduction.

    How Is Cannabis Pollen Collected?

    As the pollen sacs develop on the male flowers, they need to be closely monitored by the breeders. It is very important to remove the pollen when the sacs are just about to open as this is the crucial time when the pollen is the most viable.

    The best way to collect the pollen is to remove an entire cluster of a male flower and dry it out completely in a sealed container. This should take several days. Next, the cluster is placed on a micron screen with wax or parchment paper underneath. The dried cluster is shaken lightly until it separates from the rest of the plant and falls though the screen onto the paper. Because moisture has such a deleterious affect on the viability of cannabis pollen, many breeders mix flour with their pollen to keep it dry for long-term storage; 4:1 Flour: Pollen.

    The Importance of Long-Term Cannabis Pollen Storage

    • For breeders who worry about an unforeseen loss of their genetic material, long-term storage of cannabis pollen may be crucial for their continued success. It is very difficult to replace genetic material if it is lost.
    • It may also help to provide uniformity and quality within cannabis strains from one growing cycle to another.
    • It provides a lot of flexibility for cannabis breeders all over the world who can share their genetic material.
    • For those cannabis consumers who depend on a particular strain, long-term storage means that the genetic material many be available for many years in the future.

    The Study

    The study, Development and Optimization of a Germination Assay and Long-Term Storage for Cannabis Sativa Pollen, was conducted in March, 2020 at the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, CANADA. It was authored by Daniel Gaudet, Igor Kovalchuk, Narendra Singh Yadav, Aleksei Sorokin and Andriy Bilichak. It was published by the Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) on May 23, 2020.

    Study Abstract

    The ability to analyze the viability of cannabis pollen and a means with which to store it for extended periods is important to cannabis researchers, but even more important for breeders. This aids in the maintenance of the germplasm* to use for breeding new strains or for biotechnological and gene editing utilization.

    *Germplasm contains the information of the genetic makeup of a species. It is the living tissue from which new plants can be grown and includes seeds, tissue and pollen.

    Results and Discussion of The Study

    Pollen Germination Assay

    • Researchers employed a standardized pollen germination assay or analysis (PGA) to determine the viability of cannabis pollen before using it for pollination. In order to get an adequate representation of the germination profile, time-lapse photography was used and then evaluated using a microscope.
    • Cannabis pollen readily germinated using the Pollen Germination Media (PGM). The researchers evaluated the use of both a liquid and solid media for germination and found that they produced comparable success rates. However, the pollen tubes were more easily visible when a liquid media was used rather than the solid agar medium.
    • The study found that pollen collected during different growth stages has different periods of longevity. Researchers collected the pollen during four different stages of flower development over 21 days; Early, Mid, Mid-Late and Late. The only stage that did not lose viability after 7 days in storage at 4°C (39.2°F) was Mid. The pollen collected during the Mid flowering stage retained its viability for the longest period which was 22% of pollen grains after 21 days stored at 4°C.
    • The researchers decoded the bicellular nature of the cannabis pollen through the use of DAPI staining; a popular blue fluorescent counterstain solution used to stain DNA and nuclear content in fluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging

    Cryopreservation Storage System

    The second part of the study involved the development of a long-term cryopreservation storage system. Pollen cryopreservation is commonly used to preserve the germplasm of both agriculturally and medicinally significant species of plants. It has become clear that there is an optimum water content associated with longevity which is increased by reducing both the moisture and temperature levels. Liquid nitrogen is typically used because it is safe, inexpensive and it retains a temperature which preserves the integrity of the pollen.

    It is interesting to note that cannabis pollen stored in liquid nitrogen without the adequate reduction in moisture did not germinate. Pollen cells with high levels of moisture do not survive cryogenic storage, apparently because of ice formation between cells. Therefore, pollen cells must be dried to the point where no freezable water is present. Pollen that was adequately desiccated before being stored in liquid nitrogen also did not germinate. This led to the theory that baked wheat flour would be a suitable cryoprotectant during long-term cannabis storage.

    Sufficient moisture was removed from the cannabis pollen before combining it with baked whole wheat flour and storing it in liquid nitrogen. Upon removing the pollen from the mixture, researchers applied it to flowering female plants which resulted in successful seed formation in all the test subjects. Viable germination lasted for 4 months which implies that it may be possible to preserve cannabis pollen indefinitely. This is invaluable for maintaining a large collection of genetics.

    In a new study, researchers have developed a method for storing cannabis pollen for extended periods of time.

    Scientists Create New Method to Store Marijuana Pollen on a Long-Term Basis

    Researchers have developed a way to determine the viability of pollen germination in marijuana plants, as well as a simple method of storing cannabis pollen for long periods of time, according to a new study.

    For marijuana cultivators, the results could prove useful, helping them avoid potentially costly mistakes in the process and ensuring consistency and quality in their crops across growing cycles.

    Ensuring long-term storage of pollen is important for cultivators because of the central role it plays in generating seeds. Taking pollen from a male plant and rubbing it on the hairs of a female plant—typically about halfway through the flowering cycle—will enable the female plant to produce buds that contains seeds, which along with cloning is one way to propagate and maintain strains.

    The study, which was partly funded by the Canadian government, has “several implications,” co-author Igor Kovalchuk told Marijuana Moment.

    First, the team created an “assay to test viability of such pollen before the use for pollination.”

    They accomplished that by modifying an existing method of assessing germination viability, using a liquid media instead of a solid medium, which “resulted in better image acquisition and quantification of germination,” according to the study.

    Perhaps even more consequential for growers, however, is the development of a long-term storage system for cannabis pollen.

    “We have provided an easy protocol for cryopreservation using desiccation combined with baked wheat flour and subsequent long-term storage of cannabis pollen in liquid nitrogen.”

    “This one is big,” Kovalchuk said. “Our protocol allows nearly indefinite storage,” which is “valuable for maintaining large collection of genetics.”

    To preserve the pollen, the researchers removed any moisture, added the result to baked whole wheat flour and preserving agents and then froze it in liquid nitrogen. When they removed the mixture from the liquid nitrogen and applied it to flowering female plants, it resulted in successful seed formation in all of the subjects.

    The team also discovered that pollen can be more or less viable at different stages of the flowering period. The optimal time to extract pollen seems to be during the mid-flowering stage. At that point, it retained “viability the longest with 22 percent of pollen grains successfully germinating after 21 days” of storage in a low-temperature environment.

    “In conclusion, we have standardized a simple assay for quickly assessing pollen germination in Cannabis sativa,” the study states. “By using our [modified assay], we have demonstrated the loss of pollen viability over time when stored at 4 degrees Celsius, and suggested an optimal time during flower development for pollen collection to maximize longevity during storage.”

    “Finally, we have provided an easy protocol for cryopreservation using desiccation combined with baked wheat flour and subsequent long-term storage of cannabis pollen in liquid nitrogen,” it concludes.

    Featured image by Eric Limon/Shutterstock

    This article has been republished from Marijuana Moment under a content-sharing agreement. Read the original article here.

    Researchers have developed a way to determine the viability of pollen germination in marijuana plants, according to a new study.

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    deer weed

    Do deer eat weed? And other pests to watch out for when growing cannabis

    We know you can’t wait to get your hands on your homegrown weed harvest, but what about all the other creatures out there lurking in the garden? Are you in competition? And if so, how best to fight back and protect your stash?

    Here’s a list of common pests weed gardeners need to know about.

    Deer

    When food is abundant, deer will often prefer to skip cannabis. Makes sense, given that they tend to turn their noses at plants with strong scents. So, your weed might be safe, but deer will eat everything else in sight in your garden.

    But, as is so often the case, there might not be enough alternative food for deer, and they will absolutely eat weed when push comes to shove. Here are the best bets to keep deer out of the garden:

    • The only sure-fire way to keep deer out is a deer-proof fence. Depending on your aesthetic and budget, you have options:
      • The classic setup is wire mesh attached to posts.
      • These days a lot more folks opt for polypropylene-mesh. It’s much more affordable than wire, but it’s also a lot less durable.
      • Wood privacy fences or chain link fences also do the trick, but they have to be at least 8 feet tall.
    • Having a dog that spends most of its time outdoors can be a huge deterrent.
    • Repellant sprays can be effective, but again, nothing stops a starving animal. Note: Homemade sprays—using garlic powder and cayenne—are as effective as many store-bought ones, but they have to be reapplied more often.

    Gophers and moles

    Often lumped together, moles and gophers are actually two different types of burrowing mammals. Moles burrow underground looking for insects and leave more conical-shaped piles of dirt. Other than a touch of disturbance to your roots, moles don’t really pose much of a threat to your cannabis. Really, you can relax. Moles might actually serve some benefit in aerating the soil.

    Gophers, on the other hand, are assholes. These (mostly) indiscriminate jerks will suck an entire plant down into their tunnels in one fell swoop, leaving you with nothing (they have more of a rounded pile above ground). And sadly, cannabis is on their list of likes, so here are methods to keep them away:

    • Line the bottom of planting beds with gopher wire. Made from 3/4″ x 20-gauge hexagonal mesh netting, gophers can’t chew through it. The biggest drawback is how labor intensive it can be if your beds are well-established (that’s a lot of digging). It’s much easier to do at construction time.
    • Gopher baskets are great if lining entire beds isn’t in the cards. They’re essentially gopher (or chicken) wire bent into a basket shape. You can sink them into the bottom of the hole at planting time to protect individual plants. They’re a lot less work than lining an entire bed, but they tend to be pretty expensive per pop.
    • Trapping works, too. There are various brands of traps: Victor Black Box, Macabee, Gophinator, and Cinch.
    • Lastly, predators—including owls, snakes, cats, dogs, and coyotes—all eat gophers.

    Slugs and snails

    A telltale sign of slugs or snails are munched outer edges of leaves and a visible slimy trail nearby. These sticky mollusks tend to prefer younger, more tender plants and pose less of a problem once plants are bigger. Here are a few options to keep your weed slime free:

    • Sluggo, a store-bought product available at any garden center, is the best. Pet-safe and organic, simply sprinkle the pellets at the base of the plant. Replace after rain.
    • Fill a saucer with beer and put it nearby. Expect many drunken, dead slugs or snails the next morning.
    • Though some people swear by lining the base of plants with copper tape, made specifically for the purpose of shocking slugs and snails, it has never worked for me, so I don’t recommend it.

    Dogs

    The big risk with Fido in the cannabis garden is if he digs too close to plants and disrupts the roots. If you see him getting too close, it’s a matter of training him, keeping him on a leash, or just keeping him the hell out of the garden.

    Cats

    While they’re great for keeping other pests away, cats can pose their own problems in the cannabis garden. Should they choose to use your plants as a litter box, know that their feces can attract unwanted parasites.

    Additionally, their urine, high in ammonia, is indeed not a free fertilizer but a recipe for burn. Be sure to water a plant if you see it’s been peed on by a cat. A great way to keep kitty way from the weed is to line the soil with chicken wire. She’ll want nothing to do with walking across it.

    Squirrels

    While squirrels are otherwise complete assholes in the garden, the good news is they’ll largely leave your cannabis alone. Nuts and seeds (and that almost-ripe tomato) are their go-to foods.

    Rats and mice

    They’re gross, but not going to present much danger to your crop. Just give you the willies.

    Birds

    Unless you’re growing a crop for future seeds—which will be devoured by birds—your feathered friends are otherwise a blessing in the cannabis garden, as they eat all sorts of pests including caterpillars, snails, and slugs.

    They may be cute, but deer will eat your growing weed plants. Here's how to prevent them and other critters from destroying your weed.

    California State University Channel Islands

    Native Plants

    Deer Weed

    Scientific Name

    Acmispon glaber (Vogel) Brouillet

    Older name

    Lottus scoparius (Nutt. in T. & G.) Ottley var. scoparius

    Family

    General

    References

    See this species on CalFlora.

    Acmispon glaber on ridge to to north of University Glen and Sage Hall, CI (15 February 2004).

    Acmispon glaber, flowers along path to the east of University Glen, CI (19 April 2008).

    Acmispon glaber, flowers south facing slope of hill behind Aliso Hall, CI (22 February 2013).

    Acmispon glaber, flowers south facing slope of hill behind Aliso Hall, CI (22 February 2013).

    Acmispon glaber, entire plant on hill to the north of Sage Hall, CI (27 February 2013).

    Acmispon glaber, on hillside to the south of Malibu Hall and University Glen, CI (5 March 2013).

    Acmispon glaber, flower and foliage detail on hillside to the south of Malibu Hall and University Glen, CI (7 February 2013).

    Acmispon glaber, flowers on hillside to the south of Malibu Hall and University Glen, CI (7 March 2013).

    Acmispon glaber, flowers on hillside to the south of Malibu Hall and University Glen, CI (7 March 2013).

    Acmispon glaber, whole shrub, just above Malibu Hall, CI (7 March 2013).

    California State University Channel Islands Native Plants Deer Weed Scientific Name Acmispon glaber (Vogel) Brouillet Older name Lottus scoparius (Nutt. in T. & G.) Ottley var.

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    cannabis infused sugar

    How To Make Cannabis Sugar

    Cannabis sugar is the perfect way to liven up your favourite sweet treats. Here’s how to make it at home.

    Cannabis has earned itself a special place in the kitchen. Whether you prefer to add it to sweet classics like brownies or savoury delicacies like butter chicken, there are countless ways to infuse your favourite dishes with a healthy dose of bud.

    Until now, one of the most common ways to use weed in the kitchen was to incorporate infused butter or oil. But now, cannabis chefs have come up with a new way to cook with weed; cannabis sugar.

    Here’s how to make it.

    COOKING WITH WEED: SOME BASICS

    Before we show you how to make cannabis sugar, it’s important to cover some basics on cooking with cannabis.

    One of the most important steps to cooking with weed is decarboxylation. It basically involves baking weed at a low heat for roughly 35-40 minutes. This helps convert some of the THCA (basically an acidic, non-psychoactive compound found in live cannabis plant material) to THC, the active psychoactive compound that gets you stoned. After all, that’s why you’re here, right?

    The most important factor for proper decarboxylation is heat. The heat essentially breaks down precursor THCA to THC. Whenever decarboxylating cannabis, make sure to keep your oven temperature at 120°C/250°F max. Any higher and you risk degrading THC and losing potency.

    HOW TO MAKE WEED SUGAR

    Weed sugar is the perfect way to liven up any of your favourite sweet recipes. Here’s how to make cannabis sugar at home.

    INGREDIENTS
    • 3 grams cannabis
    • 120ml high-proof alcohol, such as Everclear
    • 100g granulated sugar
    METHOD
    1. Roughly grind/chop your weed to a coarse consistency. Spread it out on a baking tray lined with baking paper and bake at 120°C/250°F for 35-40 minutes. Make sure your temperature never exceeds this limit.
    2. Reduce the oven heat to 93°C/200°F. Transfer your decarboxylated weed to a jar and cover with alcohol. Screw the lid on the jar, making sure it is tight and secure.
    3. Shake the jar every 5 minutes for 20 minutes total. Strain the liquid through some cheesecloth into a clean bowl. Discard the solid plant matter.
    4. Mix sugar into the strained alcohol solution. Spread evenly into a glass baking dish. Bake at 93°C/200°F, stirring regularly until the alcohol has evaporated and the sugar has a golden colour.

    USING MARIJUANA SUGAR

    You can use weed sugar like you would regular sugar. Here are some ideas on how to use cannabis sugar in your kitchen:

    • Stir into coffee or your favourite tea
    • Sweeten your morning porridge
    • Make cannabis-infused syrup for cocktails and drinks
    • Mix it with cinnamon and sprinkle on donuts or churros
    • Use it to replace sugar in your favourite dessert recipes

    Want to make cannabis sugar at home? It's simple. Here are some simple steps to making weed sugar in your home for a special kind of

    Recipe: Cannabis Infused Sugar

    Copy this post to your clipboard

    We’ve covered lots of basics of cannabis cooking already, such as cannabis infused oil and weed butter – but what about if you want to add a little sweetness to your buzz? We’ve learned from our CannaKitchen Witchery columnist Stephanie Boucher that fats and oils are the go-to for cannabis cooking , because THC bonds easily with fatty molecules. Making cannabis-infused sugar is a bit trickier, but still an easy process that only requires three ingredients and some basic kitchen appliances. You can try this recipe with THC or CBD dominant flower – up to you!

    Total Time: Around 2 hours

    Ingredients

    • 3 grams cannabis flower*
    • ½ cup high-proof alcohol, such as Everclear
    • ½ cup granulated sugar
    1. Preheat oven to 250°F. Break up your cannabis flower into small pieces with your hands, then spread out into an even layer on a baking sheet. Take care not to let the cannabis heat over 250°F — if this happens, cannabinoids can burn off and your flower will lose potency. Bake for about 35-40 minutes, stirring occasionally.
    2. Remove from the oven and cool before grinding flower into a coarse powder. A coffee grinder works great, though specific devices are sold for cannabis as well. This decarboxylated weed will keep in an airtight container in a cool, dark place for up to two months.
    3. Reduce the heat on the oven to 200°F.
    4. Transfer your decarbed weed to a mason jar and cover with the high proof alcohol. Screw the lid on tight and shake every five minutes for 20 minutes total.
    5. Strain infused alcohol through a cheesecloth set over a bowl, discarding solids. Mix the sugar into the bowl well, then spread into an even layer in a glass 9-by-13-inch baking dish. Place into oven but leave the oven door slightly ajar. The goal here is to evaporate the alcohol from the mixture.
    6. Bake, stirring occasionally, until the alcohol has evaporated and the sugar is lightly golden and the same consistency as regular sugar. This should take anywhere from one to two hours.

    * Note about flower: If your cannabis is tested and you know what your cannabinoid profile is, you can calculate the exact amount of THC or CBD in your infused alcohol, and subsequently in each teaspoon of sugar.

    We've covered lots of basics of cannabis cooking already, such as cannabis infused oil and weed butter – but what about if you want to add a little sweetness to

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    marijuana and ritalin

    An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults

    Affiliations

    • 1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. Electronic address: [email protected]
    • 2 Department of Psychiatry; Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA.
    • 3 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.
    • 4 Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC.
    • PMID: 25175495
    • PMCID: PMC4250392
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2014.07.014

    Free PMC article

    An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults

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    Authors

    Affiliations

    • 1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. Electronic address: [email protected]
    • 2 Department of Psychiatry; Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA.
    • 3 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.
    • 4 Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC.
    • PMID: 25175495
    • PMCID: PMC4250392
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2014.07.014

    Abstract

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of “Feel Drug,” “Good Effects,” and “Take Drug Again.” THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures.

    Keywords: Cannabis; Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); Methylphenidate; Prescription stimulant.

    Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in co …

    Study finds link between marijuana abuse and blunted dopamine response

    by Marcia Malory , Medical Xpress

    Credit: Rice University

    (Medical Xpress)—People who use marijuana heavily experience a blunted response to dopamine, according to researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York University Langone Medical Center and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. When marijuana abusers took methylphenidate, a drug that stimulates dopamine production, they did not experience the cardiovascular, behavioral and brain changes usually associated with an increase in dopamine levels. The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    Scientists don’t know much about how excessive use of marijuana affects the brain. Marijuana doesn’t seem to affect the brain in the same way that other drugs of abuse do. Other drugs stimulate the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with feelings of pleasure, in a region of the forebrain known as the striatum. While some earlier studies have shown that marijuana does this as well, other studies have shown that marijuana does not have this effect. People who abuse alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin experience a decreased ability to produce dopamine. However, scientists have never found a link between marijuana use and reduced dopamine production.

    Joanne Fowler of Brookhaven National Laboratory and her colleagues wanted to see if marijuana abusers have a different response to dopamine than other people do. To do this, they gave 24 marijuana abusers, who had been smoking a median of about five joints a day, five days a week for 10 years, the drug methylphenidate. This drug, also known as Ritalin, stimulates the production of dopamine. Fowler’s team gave 24 control subjects methylphenidate as well.

    When the researchers compared the two groups’ reactions to methylphenidate, they found that members of the control group experienced greater increases in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure than the marijuana abusers did. Members of the control group reported feeling more high, restless, anxious and affected by the drug than the marijuana abusers did.

    PET scans showed that methylphenidate caused changes in the striatums and the cerebellums of the controls. These changes were significantly smaller in the marijuana abusers.

    The research suggests that people who use marijuana excessively have problems with the reward circuitry in their brains. Even when their brains produce large amounts of dopamine, marijuana abusers don’t respond to it normally. Personality tests showed that the marijuana abusers in the study were more likely to experience negative emotions, including depression, anxiety and irritability, than the controls were. This is a sign that marijuana abusers find it harder to experience pleasure than most people do.

    It’s not clear whether excessive marijuana use damages the brain’s reward circuitry, or whether people who already have damaged reward circuitry use marijuana to make themselves feel better.

    More information: Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity, PNAS, www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/07/10/1411228111

    Abstract
    Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [11C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral (“self-reports” for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [11C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors.

    Study finds link between marijuana abuse and blunted dopamine response by Marcia Malory , Medical Xpress Credit: Rice University (Medical Xpress)—People who use marijuana heavily experience

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    og kush yield per plant

    OG Kush

    Описание

    OG Kush likes to get around and isn’t afraid to let you know. Leafly calls this marijuana strain the “backbone of the West Coast” and if you’ve had any strain that’s come from there, then you’ve probably already had at least a small taste the OG.

    OG Kush has been around for a while, and since it has been experimented around with so much when crossing with other strains, this is one plant that knows how to mow down even the most veteran tokers with her high THC content. Breeders love using OG Kush to cross-pollinate because they know OG Kush will provide a wealth of THC and flavor that provides a fantastic base for a new strain.

    Before the euphoria embraces and crushes all your worries, you can expect to taste a triple hitter of flavors. OG’s pine, dank lemon, and woody undertones have put this strain on the map as one of the best marijuana flavors that you can’t help but want to overindulge in.

    Our tip for this strain: This is a great strain if you like a sativa high over an indica one, but don’t have the room to handle the height a typical sativa can grow to. And as we are sure you have already guess, this is a great strain for crossing with another and creating a brand new green baby. OG Kush easily has some of the most stable genetics around.

    What we love about this strain: A fantastic strain for those that like to use marijuana for both recreational use and medical use. Many medical patients are drawn to this strain for it’s ability to help with ADHD, migraines, and stress-related disorders. While she’s been crossed with and created a lot of amazing strains, there is just nothing like the original.

    Quote from a customer: “Fantastic strain. Tastes great with a very active high. High yield at 2.5 – 5oz per plant. This has become a favorite.” Glenn L.

    OG Kush Описание OG Kush likes to get around and isn’t afraid to let you know. Leafly calls this marijuana strain the “backbone of the West Coast” and if you’ve had any strain that’s come from

    Tips for growing OG Kush cannabis

    This article is presented by Advanced Nutrients, a global company raising the bud weights and reputations of cannabis growers since 1999.

    Strain overview: OG Kush is a famous hybrid strain with a somewhat mysterious backstory. What is known is that OGK offers a euphoric high that is also calming and sedative. The smell of OG Kush is earthy and pungent, and the buds blossom with resinous crystals. Long before legal dispensaries came around, OG Kush was already a household name in the underground cannabis industry, cherished for its reliable quality and balanced high.

    Grow techniques: This hybrid is susceptible to powdery mildew, but pruning will improve airflow in the canopy. It’s a great strain to grow indoors with SCROG or SOG methods to increase yields and bud size. Always support the buds as they can become extremely heavy and dense. A hydroponic setup indoors can help keep the immune system healthy and strong to prevent against disease.

    Flowering time: 8 weeks

    Yield: Moderate

    Grow difficulty: Difficult

    Climate: Can handle colder nighttime temperatures and prefers lower humidity levels while flowering. Ideally, OG Kush plants are kept at temperatures between 65 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

    Indoor/outdoor: Grows well both indoors and out. Its dense buds can make it susceptible to bud rot when humidity is high, making it ideal for drier climates if grown outdoors. OG Kush is a good choice for indoor grows as well, especially if training techniques are applied effectively.

    Feeding: OG genetics require heavy feeding with calcium and magnesium. Make sure plants are receiving enough food in flowering to allow the buds to develop to their full potential. Feed plants with compost tea to strengthen their immunity against powdery mildew.

    Learn more about growing the OG Kush cannabis strain, including its preferred climate, growth structure, and specific nutrient needs.

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    snoopdogg pot seeds

    Snoop Dogg OG seeds

    Buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds online with Seedsbay. Here you will find detailed information on the Snoop Dogg OG cannabis seeds, from specifications and reviews to flavors and effects. We have listed every seedshop where you can buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds along their offers. Compare prices on Snoop Dogg OG seeds and get the best deal for yourself!

    Unfortunatly, there are no offers available to buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds. Do you know a seedshop selling Snoop Dogg OG seeds? Send us a message and we will add the offer as soon as possible.

    Unfortunatly, there are no offers available to buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds. Do you know a seedshop selling Snoop Dogg OG seeds? Send us a message and we will add the offer as soon as possible.

    Snoop Dogg OG specifications

    Read the Snoop Dogg OG seed specifications in the table below. The values may vary between the different seedbanks where you can buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds.

    Variety 70% Indica and 30% Sativa
    THC level 25%
    CBD Level Low

    About Snoop Dogg OG seeds

    Snoop Dogg OG is a fine indica strain and has an average level of 25 percent THC. This seeds will grow a plant with low CBD levels. Snoop Dogg OG has the abbreviation Sdo where the plant is 30 percent sativa and 70 percent indica. Snoop Dogg OG will grow into a fine marijuana plant with a great yield. Growing Snoop Dogg OG seeds is fun and with the right info anyone can cultivate this cannabis plant, the Snoop Dogg OG has an average flowering time.

    The taste of Snoop Dogg OG is as following: Lemon, Pungent, Skunk, Ammonia and Diesel and is know for the euphoric, hungry, relaxed, happy and uplifted effects. Ordering your Snoop Dogg OG seeds online is not possible, as soon as we know a shop which are selling Snoop Dogg OG seeds, we will post it here.

    Snoop Dogg OG flavors

    Is it good to know what the flavor of Snoop Dogg OG is before you buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds online. It said Snoop Dogg OG tastes mostly like:

    • Lemon
    • Pungent
    • Skunk
    • Ammonia
    • Diesel

    Snoop Dogg OG effects

    You want to buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds? Get yourself informed about the effects of the Snoop Dogg OG strain. Snoop Dogg OG is known for the following effects:

    • Euphoric
    • Hungry
    • Relaxed
    • Happy
    • Uplifted

    Snoop Dogg OG reviews

    Read what other people has to say about Snoop Dogg OG seeds.

    Most helpfull

    Evangeline from Chile

    Smell: Definitely not a strain you can ride around with without anyone knowing, it has a strong diesel scent with a slight lemony pine skunk. Taste: very diesel with lemon aftertaste which lingers on the tongue. Effects: felt almost immediately, gives you a rush from head to toe and leaves you tingly. The first 30 minutes or so are giggly and intense, but you remain pretty focused after that. This strain keeps on giving, I felt pretty high for a good 6 hours. It was a little bit difficult to drive if I’d recently smoked though, so be careful. I would definitely recommend this strain if you can find it. It produced a very thick smoke (which I enjoy) and the buds are nice and smelly, dense and covered in crystals.

    Most recent

    Aurora Marino from Bozeman

    Smell: Definitely not a strain you can ride around with without anyone knowing, it has a strong diesel scent with a slight lemony pine skunk. Taste: very diesel with lemon aftertaste which lingers on the tongue. Effects: felt almost immediately, gives you a rush from head to toe and leaves you tingly. The first 30 minutes or so are giggly and intense, but you remain pretty focused after that. This strain keeps on giving, I felt pretty high for a good 6 hours. It was a little bit difficult to drive if I’d recently smoked though, so be careful. I would definitely recommend this strain if you can find it. It produced a very thick smoke (which I enjoy) and the buds are nice and smelly, dense and covered in crystals.

    Read all reviews on Snoop Dogg OG seeds, or write your own!

    Snoop Dogg OG related cannabis seeds

    These seeds are related and similar to the Snoop Dogg OG seeds.

    Want to buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds? Here you find offers from different seedshops. Find the best sale at Seedsbay before you buy Snoop Dogg OG seeds online.

    Snoop Dogg OG

    aka Snoop Dogg OG Kush, Snoop’s OG

    Named after the rap artist and cannabis enthusiast, Snoop Dogg OG is a 70% indica-dominant hybrid strain that is said to contain genetics from Lemon OG and Sour Diesel. The diesel aroma of Snoop Dogg OG dominates the less prominent lemon notes, making this strain remarkably similar to OG Kush in both aroma and bud structure. Snoop Dogg OG begins with a wave of racing creativity that later ebbs into balanced focus and appetite stimulation.

    Named after the rap artist and cannabis enthusiast, Snoop Dogg OG is a 70% indica-dominant hybrid strain that is said to contain genetics from Lemon OG and Sour Diesel. The diesel aroma of Snoop Dogg OG dominates the less prominent lemon notes, making this strain remarkably similar to OG Kush in both aroma and bud structure. Snoop Dogg OG begins with a wave of racing creativity that later ebbs into balanced focus and appetite stimulation.

    Snoop Dogg OG, aka Snoop Dogg OG Kush, Snoop's OG, is an indica cannabis strain.

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    pots outdoors

    The best outdoor plant pots for your garden or patio area

    Spruce up your space in seconds.

    When you’re shopping for the best plant pot for the leafy Monstera in your living room, you don’t have to consider much more than its appearance (and whether your plant will fit inside). Choosing outdoor plant pots, however, requires a little more thought.

    Budget, location and the upkeep you’re happy to do must all be considered before you can make your final selection. You have to choose something that’s sturdy enough for the job, too: a garden pot for flowers might not be strong enough to hold a small tree, for example. To help you pick the right garden pot for your needs, we’ve broken down some of the pros and cons of most typical materials on offer.

    Wood has a rustic, natural finish and, if you look for FSC-certified options, make a good sustainable option. If you go for those made with untreated timber, they can be stained or painted a colour of your own choice. It does require annual treatments to keep it looking its best and, if not cared for, can become susceptible to damp or mould damage.

    Plastic is hardwearing, doesn’t need any maintenance, is lightweight and usually quite inexpensive — so it’s great for those on a budget. It will fade over time, though, and doesn’t always look as smart as metal or wooden options.

    Metal typically fares well outside. It won’t fade or go mouldy, but lesser-quality options may begin to rust after some time. It’s very versatile, though, and there are many different finishes depending on whether you’re looking to achieve a more modern or traditional effect.

    Terracotta has that lovely warm tone that works very well indoors and outdoors — but larger pots can be pricey and this material will smash if you happen to drop it.

    Whatever you’re looking for, we’ve rounded up a selection of our favourite outdoor plant pots in a range of colours, materials and price points, so you can show off all your plants in your garden or on your patio or balcony perfectly.

    Spruce up your garden in seconds with the best outdoor plant pots including wood, plastic, metal and terracotta. Shop the best garden pots in our roundup.

    How to Grow Hydrangeas in Pots

    Potted Hydrangeas

    Use hydrangeas in pots to add splashes of color under trees in your landscape. Consider putting them on rolling plant stands if they’re heavy.

    Photo by: Photo by Lynn Coulter

    Photo by Lynn Coulter

    Related To:

    If you’ve ever been given a hydrangea in a foil-wrapped pot, you probably enjoyed it or a few weeks, but then watched sadly as it declined. That might make you think hydrangeas aren’t good container plants.

    Most potted, gift hydrangeas fail to thrive because they’re kept indoors too long. Others die because they’ve been raised in a greenhouse, and even if planted outdoors, they’re not cold hardy in your part of the country.

    But hydrangeas can be great potted plants, if you make good choices. Here’s what you need to know.

    Potted Hydrangea

    Hydrangeas in containers can be used on decks, patios or on stands in your garden. This plant, held atop an old column, adds an elegant touch.

    Photo by: Photo by Lynn Coulter

    Photo by Lynn Coulter

    1. First, decide where you’ll put the hydrangeas. The beauty of growing them in pots is that you can move them around. Many hydrangeas like morning sun and afternoon shade, so this also makes it easier to give them the growing conditions they prefer. You can also move them around to decorate a patio or other space for a party or special occasion.
    2. When you’re choosing containers, look for pots with wheels on the bottom, or consider sturdy, rolling plant stands, unless your pots will remain in the same place all the time. Don’t forget that containers can get really heavy after you add dirt and plants, and watering will add to their weight.
    3. Choose a large container (at least 18 to 20 inches in diameter) for your hydrangea. Small pots—like the one your gift hydrangea came in—usually dry out too fast, causing the plant to wilt. If your container doesn’t have holes for drainage, drill some into the bottom. Water that stands around the roots can cause rotting.
    4. Next, choose a variety recommended for your region. (This is a rule of thumb for success with any plant.) Read plant tags or research varieties online to find the right ones for your garden. Most hydrangeas are hardy in USDA zones 4 to 8, and some can grow in zones 3 and 9.
    5. While you don’t have to use dwarf hydrangeas in pots, you may want to if your space is limited. Hydrangeas don’t just get tall; they also get bushy. Otherwise, plan on doing some pruning as your plants grow. Caution: while you’re doing your research, check to see if your variety flowers on old or new wood. If you prune at the wrong time of year, you’ll loose next year’s flowers.
    6. Use a good quality potting soil with organic matter, not ordinary garden soil. Plant the hydrangea at the same level that it was in its original pot (that is, don’t plant it deeper or higher than it was already growing). Leave some room below the rim of the pot, so you can water.
    7. Gently firm the soil around the roots to eliminate air pockets.
    8. When the top inch or so of the potting mix feels dry, water your hydrangea thoroughly. But it’s better to underwater than overwater. Hydrangeas will signal you by wilting when they need a drink, but that can stress them, so check them every day or so. After a little while, you’ll get a feel for how often to water. You may need to step up your watering in periods of drought or high temperatures.
    9. Hydrangeas don’t need a lot of fertilizer, but you can feed your plants once or twice a year with a slow-release balanced fertilizer, a 10-10-10 granular fertilizer or commercial, composted manure. Don’t fertilize after July or August if you live in a warm climate. Northern gardeners can get away with fertilizing only once, around June or July. Feeding later encourages tender, new growth, just when hydrangeas need to start going dormant for the winter.
    10. Don’t fertilize if your plant already looks sick or diseased; you’ll add only to its stress. Try to fix the problem instead.
    11. After the flowers finish, snip them off to encourage new growth.

    Looking for compact or dwarf hydrangeas to grow in containers? Try these:

    These beautiful, shade-loving shrubs also thrive in pots. Get planting and growing tips, plus find the best hydrangea varieties for pots with help from HGTV.

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    strawberry mochi strain

    strawberry mochi strain

    Like I said, one dab and I got to a 9. All I can say is that I hope you try this strain out for yourself, you really won’t regret it. Not as good as a high as I was hoping but it’s good. This is my favorite strain for night time, I’ve ever had. One dab has set me to a solid 9. Your muscles and any stress wash away and you’ll be floating on a cloud for several hours. It is an indica-dominant hybrid known for its sweet scent and taste, not to mention its potency. A sweet strawberry smell and subtle after taste is accompanied by a thick smoke that leaves even veteran tokers coughing. To help companies make improvements in their products and services. Reminded me of an old old rumor I remember from my childhood about a black strain that was suppose to be amazing. Privacy Policy. And loved it. Repeat with the other 5 strawberries… What a great sativa. Strawberry Mochi Strain is the offspring of Thin Mint Girl Scout Cookies and Sunset Sherbet. I have OCD and A Touch of ADHD , Anxiety.. along with Insomnia. This is exactly what I needed ..It helped me stay focused and sooo relaxed which was always a problem for me and my health conditions..I would recommend it to any one who has the same problem as me . This truly works and flavor is not to potent..Thank God for the Natural Herb! . Learn more about our use of cookies in our Cookie Policy and Ideal for daytime and evening usage. People reply on consumer reviews and posting reviews is a way of giving back. Get exclusive information about new strains, latest articles, nearby dispensaries and discount deals! Mochi is an indica-leaning hybrid strain that promotes creativity and pain relief. This cannabis strain occasionally goes by nicknames like Gelato 47 and Mochi Gelato Strain. Strawberry cough is said to be a cross between Erdbeer (sativa) and an unidentifiable indica. The combination of fresh soft mochi, sweet red bean paste, and juicy and tart strawberry is a match made in heaven! Help other patients find trustworthy strains and get a sense of how a particular strain might help them. Great for waking up and getting motivated for the day. Sensation:calming creativity stress relief So on that we bought some. three hits of this had my girls panties Hit the Floor . Very nice taste, uplifting buzz gets me creative. A great way to share information, contribute to collective knowledge and giving back to the cannabis community. Taste;sweet&earthy Hints of peppermint It carries a sweet, herbal aroma and an even balance of mental and physical effects. Seek the advice of a health professional before using cannabis for a medical condition. Giving public feedback is the best way to get companies to listen. I can be ready to jam, draw or play video games, a mostly clear headed high but a good one. Take about a tablespoon of red bean paste and flatten it in your palm, then wrap it around the strawberry to form a ball, leaving the tip of the strawberry uncovered. Would totally buy this again. If you’re like me and just don’t care for Cookie strains for some reason, you’ll enjoy this one a lot (and Thin Mint Cookies, which this partly comes from). It’s an Indica-dominant hybrid strain known for its sweet flavor, aroma, and its potency. If you like Cookie strains, you’ll love this. About Mochi Mochi, sometimes known as Mochi Gelato, is a tasty strain developed by San Francisco-based growers Sherbinskis. It doesn’t have a strong nose but the flavor is like berry syrup. What is the Mochi Strain? information about AllBud and the Cannabis industry. A great review should include flavor, aroma, effect, and helpful health ailments. If you’re into Sativa, you’ll love this strain. This is one of the best sativas out there. This strain is sativa dominant with an 80:20 sativa/indica ratio. This bud is absolutely amazing in the flavor department, with tastes that will leave your mouth watering almost immediately. A sweet strawberry smell and subtle after taste is accompanied by a thick smoke that leaves even veteran tokers coughing. I’d say this strain uplifts, energizes you in a creative way, relaxes you in a physical way, and is extremely potent. I call it my “Iron Curtain” for depression I consider this one of my favorite sativas, right up there with Green Crack, and Jack Herer. Learn more about our partnership with Last Prisoner Project. You’re not old enough to use Leafly. I guess growers have cross bred the taste in there somehow. I must say, I’m proud to live in Ct, near a strawberry field, possibly near the origin of Strawberry Cough. The sativa prevalence in this strain will lead you to a … Learn more about our partnership with Last Prisoner Project. Always a favorite, Great Strawberry taste with stress relieving effects. I’ve researched this strain and it apparently gets the “strawberry” part from a strawberry farm in Vermont where it originated. This is my favorite strain for night time, I’ve ever had.

    strawberry mochi strain Like I said, one dab and I got to a 9. All I can say is that I hope you try this strain out for yourself, you really won’t regret it. Not as good as a high as I was hoping

    strawberry mochi strain

    Combine that high quality with the hassle of importing it all the way from the US, and the cost starts to make a little more sense: low supply and high demand equals pricey product. Still, says a member of the London Cannabis Club, “however good it is, that’s just too expensive – £30 a gram was unheard of before. There are great flowers from Spain for much cheaper, or, even better, growers here in the UK who are growing proper strains in the proper way. If it’s good weed, sometimes they just say it’s from US to sell it at a higher price. US weed has become a brand.”

    In their marketing campaigns, these brands offer reliability and consistency. And they’re not lying: when buying name brand weed, you’re more or less guaranteed to get the same thing the next time you buy it. The same can’t be said for the scattershot you get off British street dealers. Top top things off, the fact you get this weed in a fancy branded baggie or jar – as opposed to an old bit of cling-film – surely can’t hurt either.
    Essentially, Collado’s weed compared to your average street dealer stuff is like the difference between a 50p pack of peppers at Tesco and single, organic £1.50 pepper from Waitrose. But, just like the price discrepancy between those peppers, is the going rate for this imported weed really justified? I called some cannabis dispensaries in California and Colorado to find out why people are paying way above market rate for this supposedly superior weed.

    Dump this on top of the illegal cannabis markets of places like the UK – where relatively poor-quality weed is on offer from street dealers – and you create a global demand for products that are illegal in many of the places they’re most sought after.
    In the UK, the average ounce of weed will set you back about £200. Unless you have a mate’s rates thing going on with the grower, that is, or – conversely – you buy your weed off someone who very regularly fucks you over. But even if your dealer is the most unscrupulous of pisstakers, it’s unlikely they’ll be charging you upwards of £250 an ounce.
    This wouldn’t go down too well with someone like MC Berner, an entrepreneur and rapper who has established a successful accessory, clothes and cannabis brand called “Cookies Co”. Berner has worked with expert growers in the hills of California to produce strains – such as “Girl Scout Cookies” – which could be some of the most sought-after in the world. “Where can I get some cookies?” – or something along those lines – is a sentence that plagues the cannabis community’s online forums and comment sections.
    The legalisation and, more importantly, commercialisation of cannabis markets in the US has spawned cannabis-producing brands whose products can only be bought in states where weed is legal. However, with the marketing of these brands living partly online, cannabis users all over the world have become aware of them, spawning international followings for these must-have “artisanal” products.
    A £25 gram of King Kush from Collado, which comes in its original dispensary packaging. (Photo by the author)

    Collado got some of his weed out. It was certainly more pungent and fresh-smelling than the average 20-bag of haze.

    Investigating the imported American weed that’s going for up to £700 an ounce – or over three times what you’d usually spend in the UK.

    Combine that high quality with the hassle of importing it all the way from the US, and the cost starts to make a little more sense: low supply and high

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    stone seed logo

    Stone seed logo

    Since 1928, Stone Seed has provided local expertise and high-performing seed products to help maximize yield potential. Learn more about our rich history in Illinois.

    Rolland Stone and his father founded Stone Seed to produce a small quantity of seed corn for their own farm. They offset production costs by selling leftover seed to friends and neighbors and began working on hybrids with the University of Illinois.

    In 1960, Rolland’s son, Richard, took over the business and began working with other companies to produce larger quantities of their seed. Throughout the years, Stone Seed began developing seed under their own brand. And in the 2000s, they began working with Monsanto’s American Seeds, Inc. to develop top-performing genetics and traits.

    A lot has changed since we first opened our doors in 1928. What hasn’t changed is that Illinois is still one of the most important farming regions. Stone Seed has been proudly supporting Illinois with high-quality products and dedicated service for nearly 100 years and will continue to long into the future.​​​

    Products Locally Tested for Illinois

    Stone Seed only offers corn, silage, soy and wheat seeds that have been locally tested for Illinois fields.

    XtendiMax® herbicide with VaporGrip® Technology is part of the Roundup Ready® Xtend Crop System and is a restricted use pesticide. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal and state law to use any pesticide product other than in accordance with its labeling. XtendiMax® herbicide with VaporGrip® Technology and products with XtendFlex® Technology may not be approved in all states and may be subject to use restrictions in some states. Check with your local product dealer or representative or U.S. EPA and your state pesticide regulatory agency for the product registration status and additional restrictions in your state. For approved tank-mix products and nozzles visit XtendiMaxApplicationRequirements.com.

    Commercialization is dependent on multiple factors, including successful conclusion of the regulatory process. The information presented herein is provided for educational purposes only, and is not and shall not be construed as an offer to sell, or a recommendation to use, any unregistered pesticide for any purpose whatsoever. It is a violation of federal law to promote or offer to sell an unregistered pesticide.

    Do not export Roundup Ready® Alfalfa seed or crop, including hay or hay products, to China pending import approval. In addition, due to the unique cropping practices do not plant Roundup Ready® Alfalfa in Imperial County, California, pending import approvals and until Forage Genetics International, LLC (FGI) grants express permission for such planting.

    Forage Genetics International, LLC (“FGI”) is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). FGI products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with FGI’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. Certain products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from this product can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for this product. Growers should refer to http://www.biotradestatus.com/ for any updated information on import country approvals. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Biotechnology Industry Organization.

    Roundup Ready technology contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate, an active ingredient in Roundup® brand agricultural herbicides. Agricultural herbicides containing glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate.

    Monsanto Company is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). Monsanto products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with Monsanto’s Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. This product has been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from this product can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move material containing biotech traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. Growers should talk to their grain handler or product purchaser to confirm their buying position for this product. Excellence Through Stewardship® is a registered trademark of Excellence Through Stewardship.

    XtendFlex® soybeans have received full approval for planting in the United States but are pending approval in certain export markets. For 2020, XtendFlex® soybeans will be available as part of a stewarded introduction only to growers who have signed a 2020 XtendFlex® Stewardship Agreement and agree to follow the stewardship requirements.

    ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW DIRECTIONS FOR USE ON PESTICIDE LABELING. IT IS A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL AND STATE LAW to use any pesticide product other than in accordance with its labeling. NOT ALL formulations of dicamba or glyphosate are approved for in-crop use with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans. ONLY USE FORMULATIONS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY LABELED FOR SUCH USES AND APPROVED FOR SUCH USE IN THE STATE OF APPLICATION. Contact the U.S. EPA and your state pesticide regulatory agency with any questions about the approval status of dicamba herbicide products for in-crop use with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans.

    Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans contains genes that confer tolerance to glyphosate and dicamba. Glyphosate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glyphosate. Dicamba will kill crops that are not tolerant to dicamba. Glufosinate will kill crops that are not tolerant to glufosinate. Contact your Monsanto dealer or refer to Monsanto’s Technology Use Guide for recommended weed control programs.

    B.t. products may not yet be registered in all states. Check with your Monsanto representative for the registration status in your state.

    IMPORTANT IRM INFORMATION: RIB Complete® corn blend products do not require the planting of a structured refuge except in the Cotton-Growing Area where corn earworm is a significant pest. SmartStax® RIB Complete® corn blend is not allowed to be sold for planting in the Cotton-Growing Area. See the IRM/Grower Guide for additional information. Always read and follow IRM requirements.

    Performance may vary, from location to location and from year to year, as local growing, soil and weather conditions may vary. Growers should evaluate data from multiple locations and years whenever possible and should consider the impacts of these conditions on the grower’s fields.

    The Climate FieldView™ services provide estimates or recommendations based on models. These do not guarantee results. Consult your agronomist, commodities broker and other service professionals before making financial, risk management, and farming decisions. Information and recommendations we provide do not modify your rights under insurance policies purchased through our affiliates. More information at www.climate.com/disclaimers.

    ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE LABEL DIRECTIONS. Acceleron®, DroughtGard®, FortiField™, HDS®, LibertyLink®, NemaStrike™, Poncho®, QuickRoots®, RIB Complete and Design®, RIB Complete®, Roundup Ready 2 Xtend®, Roundup Ready 2 Yield®, Roundup Ready PLUS®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup®, SmartStax®, Stone Seed and Design™, Stone Seed™, TagTeam®, VaporGrip®, VOTiVO®, VT Double PRO®, VT Triple PRO®, the Water Droplet Design®, and XtendiMax® are trademarks of Bayer Group. Climate FieldView™ is a trademark of The Climate Corporation. Herculex® is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Respect the Refuge and Corn Design® and Respect the Refuge® are registered trademarks of National Corn Growers Association. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. ©2020 Bayer Group, All Rights Reserved.

    Stone Seed™ has provided Illinois farmers with seed and support for nearly 100 years. Learn more about our long journey to present day.

    Value Licensing

    Specialist supplier of pre-owned Microsoft software to private and public sector organisations across the UK and Europe.

    “ValueLicensing reached out to Stoneseed to provide PMaaS to deliver projects within the business. This allowed us to keep the team focused on the day to day business activities and saving our customers money. Stoneseed’s engagement model, rate card, and highly skilled friendly project people were a pleasure to work with as part of the team.”

    -David Hubbard – Deputy Managing Director

    Loughborough University

    The University of Loughborough is one of Britain’s leading universities. A combination of world class research, enterprising outlook, unparalleled sporting achievement and excellent students gives rise to something that is truly special and distinctive among the UK’s universities.

    “With Stoneseed’s PMaaS model we can utilise our demand for Project Managers and Business Analysts as and when the project requires them, rather than a fixed 5 day week working pattern”

    – Mike Domokos – Project Portfolio Manager

    KCOM helps enterprises and public-sector organisations to re-imagine and re-architect their IT and communications infrastructure to deliver easier experiences for their customers.

    With best-in-class consultancy, architecture, delivery and service management, KCOM works with its customers to deliver on the promise of digital transformation, low effort customer experiences and the public cloud

    “In a delivery world of fluctuating and reactive demand, the ability to draw down from a framework of high quality capable PM resources at short notice has proved invaluable to the recent successes achieved at KCOM. The Stoneseed model provides flexibility, quality resources and a supportive way of working which has enhanced our permanent pool of project delivery capability. I highly recommend the services provided by David Cotgreave and the team.”

    -Jane Clayson FAPM, Head of Project Management

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