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What about Medical Marijuana?

Introduction

Recreational marijuana use has been decisively rejected by Christians because of its psychoactive properties and tendency to perpetuate a lethargic and selfish lifestyle. But as cannabis is increasingly being legalized for medical use, a new discussion is emerging within the church about whether or under what conditions its use would be appropriate. This essay presents an overview of the key issues and suggests some practical guidelines for potential cannabis users and leaders who will need to provide a biblical response to them.

The Scientific Dimension

Medical cannabis has been prescribed for AIDS and cancer patients suffering from nausea and poor appetite because of their treatments. This has been viewed largely, though not exclusively, as a palliative care option, or for the duration of chemotherapy, not for ongoing symptom control or treatment. Since long-term use is not in view and few options exist for patients in this sorrowful condition, the benefits seem to some to outweigh the dangers (see Proverb 31:6-7). There is a plausible analogy between opiates and cannabis. Both substances are commonly abused, but could play an appropriate, if limited, medical role.

Though there may be a case for medical cannabis in conditions like terminal cancer or AIDS, marijuana seems to be prescribed (where legal) or advocated for a growing number of real or perceived maladies. In a society with an increasingly permissive view of marijuana, it is likely that almost any justification for its use will be accepted. In a culture ravaged by drug abuse and addiction, this raises obvious problems for the church.

Let’s consider as a case study the debate over medical cannabis and Crohn’s and severe Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Recent claims have been made about the effective properties of cannabis (THC) in Crohn’s and IBD patients. These claims should be taken seriously both because of the wide range of positive anecdotal testimony and from a sense of compassion that suffering people are experiencing real help.

Two commonly cited studies illustrate the case for medical marijuana. The first is an Israeli study published in the journal Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Naftali, et. al.: 2012). This study of 21 patients with Crohn’s Disease found that “complete remission” was achieved by 5 out of 11 subjects who smoked cannabis over an eight week period. On this surface of it, this is a significant result. However, there are seriously limiting factors to the study. Eight weeks is not long enough to claim “complete remission,” unless by “remission” is meant cessation of reported bowel flair ups during the time participants smoked cannabis. There were no follow up studies to demonstrate the long-term results of cannabis use. The authors themselves conclude, “[T]he primary end point of the study (induction of remission) was not achieved. ” The crucial point is that short-term relief of symptoms occurred, but not the stronger claim of actual remission of the disease.

A second study by Karen Wright (Wright, K., et al.: 2008) indicates that chemicals found in cannabis could prove an effective treatment for Crohn’s Disease, not just symptom relief. She was able to demonstrate that naturally occurring compounds in the human intestines, endocannabinoids, increase the permeability of the intestinal lining during Crohn’s-related inflammation. These compounds are chemically related to cannabis. In a laboratory experiment, Wright isolated cannabinoids from marijuana which helped epithelial cells from the intestines to form tighter bonds with each other, resulting in a membrane barrier for intestinal tissue. No human subjects were involved. These results correspond to other studies (Izzo, et al: 2012; Capasso et al.: 2008). But significantly, Wright noted, “What is also encouraging is that while THC has psychoactive properties and is responsible for the ‘high’ people experience when using cannabis, cannabidiol, which has also proved effective in restoring membrane integrity, does not possess such properties.” This and related studies could be very promising since it offers a chemical basis for why some compounds in cannabis could help treat Crohn’s Disease. Medications extracted from cannabis would not produce the psychoactive effect that is so central to objections surrounding medical marijuana. However, a safe and effective medication is still a long way off and more studies will be needed to confirm these potentially promising findings.

But the clinical research is by no means uniform in favor of medical marijuana for Crohn’s. A recent study (Storr, et al.: 2014), raises serious questions about the safety of marijuana for Crohn’s patients. This eight month study of 322 patients from the University of Calgary concludes, “Cannabis use provides symptom relief in patients with inflammatory bowel disease but is associated with worse disease prognosis in patients with Crohn’s disease. The study warns, “Cannabis use was associated with higher risk of surgery in patients with Crohn’s disease. Patients using cannabis should be cautioned about potential harm, until clinical trials evaluate efficacy and safety.”

The problem in the mostly self-prescribed world of medical marijuana is that there are no standards for drug safety or clinically established data on its efficacy. The stringent scientific standards applied to FDA approval for new drugs have not been applied to cannabis. However, compounds extracted from cannabis, such as dronabinol (Marinol) have been FDA approved and have a limited but clear medicinal value. Perhaps in the future, cannabis research will lead to the production of medications to reverse the pattern of intestinal degeneration of Crohn’s Disease, but that is yet to be seen. Until then there are many safe and proven medications available on the market today to alleviate the effects of chronic diseases such as Crohn’s. These treatments should all be fully explored before considering something as risky as medical cannabis. It is unfortunate that marijuana is being approved by public vote, not by expert evaluation, in the way all other medications become available.

But to the person whose life is significantly diminished by chronic IBD/Crohn’s and related diseases, the risks may seem minimal compared to the benefit of symptom relief. For this reason, it is crucial that medical marijuana as a treatment option is viewed from the broader context of the potential dangers THC poses and the presence of alternatives to cannabis for these conditions.

The pervasive assumption seems to be that there is no real down side to smoking marijuana even for purely recreational purposes. But a recent study (Gilman, et. al.: 2014), published in the Journal of Neuroscience, indicates significant brain abnormalities even with casual (weekly) marijuana smoking. The team from Harvard Medical School, Northwestern University, and Massachusetts General Hospital found that cannabis creates disruption of neural organization in the a priori regions of the nucleus of the accumbens, hypothalamus, and amygdala—centers of the brain associated with emotion and motivation. The researchers conclude, “This study raises a strong challenge to the idea that casual marijuana use isn’t associated with bad consequences. People think a little recreational use shouldn’t cause a problem, if someone is doing OK with work or school. Our data directly says that is not the case.” These findings provide more grounds for the National Institute on Drug Abuse warning: “Research shows marijuana may cause problems in daily life or make a person’s existing problems worse. Heavy marijuana users generally report lower life satisfaction, poorer mental and physical health, more relationship problems, and less academic and career success compared to non-marijuana-using peers” (NIDA: 2014).

In addition to the numerous medications available to IBD/Crohn’s disease patients, every expert in gastroenterology is convinced that diet and exercise are critical to keeping symptoms at bay. British Dietetic Association evidence-based guidelines for the dietary management of Crohn’s disease in adults’ states: “Crohn’s disease is a debilitating chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Appropriate use of diet and nutritional therapy is integral to the overall management strategy of Crohn’s disease” (see Lee et. al.: 2013). Self- prescribed and self-monitored marijuana use may actually be a barrier to long-term health by muting symptoms and removing the sense of urgency to develop and sustain a healthy lifestyle.

The Pastoral Dimension

Like many issues facing contemporary society, marijuana use is never mentioned in the Bible. For this reason, medical cannabis needs to be viewed from the perspective of principles relating to substance use and abuse. Four important areas of biblical teaching relate.

First, the Bible calls Christians to sobriety. Since it is impossible to smoke marijuana without getting high, these passages have a direct application. But why does sobriety matter? 1 Thessalonians 5:6-8 contrasts drunkenness and alertness. Paul says, “let us be alert and sober. let us be sober, having put on the breastplate of faith, and love, and as a helmet, the hope of salvation.” Sobriety is essential to exercise faith, love, and hope. Being high dulls us to the moment by moment call to faith. Being high dulls us to the pressing call to love and an awareness of the true needs of others. Being high obscures the tangible reality of hope in the returning Christ. Put simply, drunkenness is a barrier to the Holy Spirit’s filling: “Do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Holy Spirit” (Ephesians 5:18).

In a related text, Paul says, “but you, be sober in all things, endure hardship. ” (2 Timothy 4:5). Here, sobriety is viewed as a condition for endurance. To be high or intoxicated creates lethargy. To “fulfill your ministry,” demands the willingness to work through pain and discomfort. Self-medicating, whether through alcohol abuse or cannabis, works against developing the kind of toughness required of the effective Christian worker.

A second, and clearly related principle, comes from the context of being in a spiritual battle. Peter warns, “Be sober of spirit, be on the alert. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion seeking someone to devour” (1 Peter 5:8). Since marijuana is a psychoactive substance, the mind will be compromised in the spiritual war our enemy wages. Dulled, deceived, and dissipated, without our full faculties, Satan finds an easy target. Perhaps this is why Paul includes pharmakeon, sorcery, as of the flesh (Galatians 5:20). Psychoactive drugs were used in pagan worship and this text directly juxtaposes it to walking by the Spirit.

Third, New Testament teaching on Christians obeying secular government and its laws relates to marijuana: “Every person is to be in subjection to the governing authorities. whoever resists authority has opposed the ordinances of God. it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of wrath, but also for conscience sake. ” (Romans 13:1,2,5). The scripture calls Christians to live within the law, except when laws directly conflict with the expressed will of God. So, for instance, Peter and John defied the civil authorities in continuing to openly preach the good news (Acts 4:19). Paul frames this obedience as a matter of conscience, a moral issue. Certainly how Christians relate to the secular state is both for the good of social cohesion and for the greater priority of our witness to non-Christians.

There are traps that medical marijuana smokers risk falling into. For instance, most employers require a drug test as a condition of employment. Cannabis smokers will fail that test. So there could easily be significant financial loss associated with medical marijuana. Further, because of the way THC stays in the body, it is possible to be arrested for the equivalent of drunk driving even a week after smoking. Ohio law states that it is illegal to drive a vehicle while under the influence of marijuana. A level of 2 nanograms per milliliter of the driver’s blood is sufficient to establish impaired driving. Prosecutors will not need to present proof of impairment in the driver’s faculties. This is very serious for anyone using medical marijuana because the average blood THC level for them is 10-20 nanograms. The reality is that medical marijuana users, legally, should not even be driving (see Ohio code 4511.19 Operating vehicle under the influence of alcohol or drugs—OVI). These are very serious risks indeed. People thinking about using marijuana should talk to a lawyer about potential legal dangers.

Fourth, drunkenness is serious enough to call for church discipline (1 Corinthians 5:11). That’s pretty sobering! Users of medical marijuana seek primarily the symptom relief THC brings, but as a psychoactive substance, the dissipating effect is also present. A way of living that includes getting high seems clearly, on the surface, to be sufficient to remove someone from fellowship. Particularly in a church context where people are trying to make a break from drug addiction, cannabis users who could be treated with other medications present an unedifying, compromising example that can easily undermine the walk of their weaker brothers and sisters.

Drawing Some Conclusions

Addressing medical marijuana use in the home church is complex and often laden with deep emotion. Each situation will bring its own complexities. Being sensitive to people who are in pain pulls us toward compassion. Reading the scripture with honesty and integrity pulls us toward concern for obedience to God’s revealed will and the life-giving principles expressed by it. Consider the following areas in the process of counseling medical cannabis users and the home church.

What is being treated? Is it a physician-diagnosed condition? If so, what are the treatment options? Medical marijuana would have to be the last resort for all the reasons explored in this paper. That means home church leaders will need to do some research. But the onus falls to the cannabis user to explain why this is the only effective option available to them. Getting the opinion of a Christian physician specializing in the relevant area would be valuable and should be pursued.

Get the advice of other Christians with the same diagnosis. It’s easy to argue that those not afflicted with a medical problem can’t relate. On a certain level this is true. But there are many people at Xenos who have learned how to deal with chronic disease victoriously without smoking marijuana. Home church leaders should insist that prospective medical cannabis users meet with these people and seek practical counsel on how to deal with their problem in a godly way. Would-be medical marijuana smokers should be called on to diligently follow the example of mature Christians in this area. There is legitimate concern that with the attitudes toward marijuana in our culture, and people will seek relief in something that is dangerous and works against their long-term health and spiritual life.

Study the available research and biblical texts together. Are you and the person considering medical cannabis clear on all of the related issues? Do you agree on the appropriate course of action? Since this is an area of potential church discipline, make sure to draw the leadership team of the home church and the sphere into the process early on. If the person decides to pursue smoking marijuana, you will need to make it clear what that choice involves in terms of their standing in the home church.

References to Related Publications

Capasso, R. et al.: Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice (2008: British Journal of Pharmacology)

Criminal Defense Lawyer.com. Outline of definitions for impaired driving and penalties.

Gilman, J.M, et al.: Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users (2014: J. Neurosci.)

Izzo, A. et al.: Central and peripheral cannabinoid modulation of gastrointestinal transit in physiological states during the diarrhea induced by croton oil (2000: British Journal of Pharmacology)

Lee, J. et al., British Dietetic Association evidence-based guidelines for the dietary management of Crohn’s disease (2013: J Hum Nutr Diet.)

Lomer, M.c. et al.: Current practice in relation to nutritional assessment and dietary management of enteral nutrition in adults with Crohn’s disease (2013: The British Dietetic Association)

Naftali, T., et al.: Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study (2012: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology)

Storr, M, et al., Cannabis use provides symptom relief in patients with inflammatory bowel disease but is associated with worse disease prognosis in patients with Crohn’s Disease (2014: Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America)

O’Mathuna, D. et al.: Should Christians Smoke Medical Marijuana? (2011: Christianity Today)

O’Mathuna, D., Ethics of Marijuana Use (2014: Family Research Council)

Ravikoff. A. et al.: Marijuana use patterns among patients with inflammatory disease (2013: National Center for Biotechnology Information)

Wright KL (2008) Cannabinoid (CB)-2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract: a regulatory system in states of inflammation. Br. J. Pharmacol. 153(2), 263-7

What about Medical Marijuana? Introduction Recreational marijuana use has been decisively rejected by Christians because of its psychoactive properties and tendency to perpetuate a lethargic

Kaneh Bosm – Cannabis in the Bible

Hemp was the anointing oil used in the rites of all Hebrew kings and priests.

Can Christians smoke weed with a clear conscience now it’s legal in my home state? Is cannabis smoking a sin? The answer for a surprising number of Christians is yes, and they quote Bible scriptures. Kaneh Bosm as it is called in the Bible was used as a medicinal herb and is quoted in many passages.

Whether you buy into natural cannabis herbal use being OK under God, you need to accept some scholar’s translation of the Hebrew Bible. You will also be the type of person that doesn’t believe what the Federal Government has been saying for the past 70 years (before that hemp and cannabis medicines were perfectly legal in the US.). Few Christians know that all farmers in the original colonies were required by law, that farmers must grow hemp for its first hundred years of existence. The founding fathers were hemp farmers; Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington.

“The anointment of sacred objects was an ancient tradition in Israel; holy oil was not to be used for secular purposes. The sacred character or Hemp in biblical times is described in Exodus 30:22- 23, where Moses was instructed by God to anoint the meeting tent and all its furnishings with specially prepared oil, containing hemp. Anointing set sacred things apart from secular, normal from the godlike.” – Benet, 1975 (paraphrase)

Around 1980, etymologists at Hebrew University in Jerusalem established that cannabis is quoted in the Hebrew Bible by name, Kineboisin and Kannabosm, in a list of several measured ingredients for ‘an oil of holy ointment, an ointment to be smeared on the head after the art of apothecary. The word was mistranslated in King James version where Kaneh Bosm (hemp) was written calamus.

“Jesus was almost certainly a cannabis user and an early proponent of the medicinal properties of the drug, according to a study of scriptural texts published.” – Biblical Scholar

SCHOLARS THINK JESUS MIRACLE CAME FROM CANNABIS

Q: Kaneh bosm or marijuana quotes from the Bible. harmful or helpful? Good or bad?

A: A Google search revealed a surprising amount of information on the topic.

Perhaps a lot of people out there want to connect marijuana (cannabis) use to a spiritual practice and are delusional to connect the herbs and oils mentioned in the Bible. This is nothing new. Throughout history, man has been searching for material ways, and justification, to become more spiritual and closer to God.

If you think about it, and know something about the history of marijuana, it was generally legal throughout the world for thousands of years, with the notable exception being America. The pro-marijuana crowd claims that In the 1930’s, the foes of marijuana, the industrialists with competing products of pulp and paper, oil, cotton and later the pharmaceutical industry conspired to make cannabis and its non-psychoactive cousin, hemp, off the market.

Bear in mind, that perhaps the majority of Christians think that the federal government is doing a lot of things to discourage, or even prosecute Christians. Certainly Christians that feel offended by the Feds might be willing to consider that cannabis is not what they say it is, an evil satanic substance.

Ancient Cannabis Culture – No Laws Against it in Hewbrew, Arabic or Christian Religious Texts

“Marijuana use has always been somewhat controversial, as far back as the 1920s and 30s. In the ’60s, it enjoyed a resurgence with the “hippie movement, ” and then fell out of favor in later decades, as it became associated with stronger, more addictive drugs, such as heroin and cocaine. It has been thought to be a “gateway” to more dangerous drugs.”

The founding father of Cannabis Based Medicines – Dr. Raphael Mechoulam

There is some legitimate argument that the marijuana of today is not healthy, in the sense that it can contain very and unnatural levels of THC, and this weed truly gets people very stoned, to the point where they vegetate, and sometimes too much.

The idea that marijuana is a gateway drug is not born out in the statistics, where hard drug use, deaths, domestic violence, DUI all fall in states where marijuana is legal. Certainly Satin is would not like those numbers and statistics.

“And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.” – Genesis 1:29 – natural herbs are god’s gift

Archaeological evidence, and test results from 2000 year old cannabis from central Asia showed a much more balanced herb, with only 14% of the THC of today’s strong strains, and also much higher quantities of CBD (medicinal and non-psychoactive) and other notable quantities of other cannabinoids that provide a much different effect that standard American weed. Perhaps the difference could be compared as the difference between a fine herbal wine and a pint of hard liquor.

Each person has to decide if this substance is good or bad, harmful or helpful. This is something that you’ll have to decide for yourself, that is, if you believe in the passage in the Bible where God created man in his image, and granted Adam and Eve free will, a will to choose, hopefully good from evil, but as we all know, not necessarily so.

A mother who reconnected with God after treating her family with medical cannabis.

“I had dropped out of church a couple of years prior to all of this, I think a lot of it was my son’s depression and just feeling disconnected from everybody. It just seemed like everybody had the perfect little family and nobody understood depression and there was something wrong with my son and I just felt really alone,” Button, who was going through a divorce at the time, said. “Then when I started using the cannabis, I just felt very connected to God again, like I could feel all of the beauty that was in the world and not see all the negative stuff.”

In the US, the individual states are mostly for legalization. In fact, more than half the country has legal weed in some form, with many more states following suit. Then there are the Feds who do everything they can to throw monkey wrenches into the process. Who’s the evil ones here? You be the judge.

The rightness/wrongness—harmfulness/harmlessness—and the usefulness of marijuana use—like the use of any mind-altering substance, is based on the idea that intoxication leads to one or more of the deadly sins. There is no question that gluttony and sloth can be caused by many things legal and illegal, sugar for example in excess is gluttony and leads to laziness and obesity.

Does it take common sense and an honest examination of one’s personal motivation for its use to decide if marijuana is good or evil? Certainly an epileptic child whose life is saved by a tincture contains only non-psychoactive CBD from hemp cannot be evil, not can the parents be evil in saving their child’s life, in this way. Correct?

History of Medical Cannabis and Hemp in the USA – Part 2

WHAT THEY’RE SAYING

“(110:1.5) . But, how unkind knowingly to defile or otherwise deliberately to pollute the physical body, which must serve as the earthly tabernacle of this marvelous gift from God. All physical poisons greatly retard the efforts of the Adjuster to exalt the material mind, while the mental poisons of fear, anger, envy, jealousy, suspicion, and intolerance likewise tremendously interfere with the spiritual progress of the evolving soul.” – Does this apply to Cannabis?

**The components of cannabis have been shown to be very good for lung function, pain, inflammation, bone and nerve regeneration, and is anti-cancer – causes tumor cells to suicide.

** If you’re in the United States, it’s likely because the Puritans that settled here “abstained” from anything that gave pleasure as to not be gluttonous. That thinking still exists today in all sorts of forms.

**Smokey wasn’t lying “God put this on the earth for you and me! Take advantage man.”

** Not all Christians think it’s bad. Though a lot do, but there’s quite a few I know who don’t.
I watched a video of a nun smoking weed with two girls. The whole premise of the video was clashing people coming together with weed. I don’t remember who the two girls were. One might’ve been lesbian or jewish? I’m not sure. Another video was a rabbi, a priest, and a gay guy. it made me really happy haha.

** But the nun was talking to them, and she said “there are very popular theories that the holy oils they spoke of in the Bible, could’ve been marijuana extract”

**How great would that be if Christians are against it now meanwhile cut to jesus with a supreme hat and a bong

** On youtube there is a vid where self proclaimed “weed nuns” grow and smoke it marijuana. They call themselves nuns because the American government needed to make children’s lunches more healthy. So they declared pizza as a vegetable. So then one of these women said if pizza’s a vegetable, I’m a nun. The girl just smokes with the nuns and gets high and talks philosophical type stuff. Same with the video with the gay guy, priest and rabbi.

** For Catholics at least (so 50% of the Christian population across the world), the answer is summed up in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, paragraphs 2290 & 2291: 2290 The virtue of temperance disposes us to avoid every kind of excess: the abuse of food, alcohol, tobacco, or medicine. Those incur grave guilt who, by drunkenness or a love of speed, endanger their own and others’ safety on the road, at sea, or in the air. 2291 The use of drugs inflicts very grave damage on human health and life. Their use, except on strictly therapeutic grounds, is a grave offense. Clandestine production of and trafficking in drugs are scandalous practices. They constitute direct co-operation in evil, since they encourage people to practices gravely contrary to the moral law.

MMJDOCTORONLINE NOTES: In California, while recreational marijuana is legal, a medical marijuana card allows patients to purchase it at dispensaries and delivery services now, and in 2018, they will pay about 25% less than the general population. Our online process is completed in just a few minutes and patients are not required to pay until their medical marijuana recommendation has been approved by a licensed doctor.

FURTHER READING

** Chris Bennett takes a look at the fascinating references to cannabis, under the Hebrew name ‘kaneh bosm’ (spelling – qoph nun he’ – bet shim mem) in the Old Testament text that have been suggested by anthropologist Sula Benet and other researchers.. Included is a discussion of the linguistics behind the theory as well as a look at the references in context of the Biblical story line and the use of cannabis by the surrounding cultures who influenced the Jewish cosmology, such as the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Canaanites and Scythians.

10 AMAZING, CRAZY & USEFUL FACTS ABOUT MARIJUANA

THEN GOD SAID,
I GIVE YOU EVERY SEED-BEARING
PLANT ON THE FACE OF THE WHOLE
EARTH, AND EVERY TREE THAT
HAS FRUIT IN IT.”
GENESIS 1:29-30

How the Old Testament Prophets were none other than ancient shamans, and that cannabis and other entheogens played a very prominent role in ancient Hebrew culture.

Those words seem straightforward enough, and yet cannabis and most other psychoactive medicine plants are outlawed in our society. Those who use these plant gateways to other states of consciousness are jailed for doing so. Ironically, the major force for continuing this plant prohibition is a group referred to as the Christian Right. They claim to believe in both the Bible and old Yahweh, yet Yahweh’s opinion on the matter is stated quite clearly in the above quotation.

Jesus was almost certainly a cannabis user and an early proponent of the medicinal properties of the drug, according to a study of scriptural texts published.

Jesus and his disciples used the drug to carry out miraculous healings. The anointing oil used by Jesus and his disciples contained an ingredient called kaneh-bosem which has since been identified as cannabis extract, according to an article by Chris Bennett.

The incense used by Jesus in ceremonies also contained a cannabis extract, suggests Mr Bennett, who quotes scholars to back his claims. “There can be little doubt about a role for cannabis in Judaic religion,” Carl Ruck, professor of classical mythology at Boston University said. Referring to the existence of cannabis in anointing oils used in ceremonies, he added: “Obviously the easy availability and long-established tradition of cannabis in early Judaism would inevitably have included it in the [Christian] mixtures.”

The Holy Anointing Oil In 1936, a little known Polish Professor, Sara Benetowa (later Sula Benet), did extensive etymological research, showing that both the Aramaic and Hebrew versions of the Old Testament contained references to cannabis as a fiber for rope and cloth, as well as an incense. But most preeminently, hemp was the active ingredient in the Holy anointing oil of the ancient Hebrews, a practice likely adopted alongside with their god, from the earlier cult of Dagon/Ea/Enki/Oannes.

Despite hosting the “Stoner Jesus Bible Study,” Button, a “conservative” who twice voted against the legalization of recreational and medical marijuana in Colorado, is relatively new to pot use.

She explained that she began using cannabis in January 2015 when she began using edibles to help her alleviate the pain from debilitating migraines. Although she once strongly opposed the use of the drug, her views on marijuana were “softened” when she decided that nothing, expect cannabis, worked to help medicate her 21-year-old severely depressed son.

What did scholar’s say? Did Christians around the time of Jesus smoke cannabis and hash? Is cannabis oil and herb quoted as medicines in the Bible?