deformed cannabis leaves

The Most Common Cannabis Mutations

Ever seen ducksfoot cannabis? What about an albino plant? While not common, the cannabis plant has quite a few interesting mutations that sometimes can even boost yield. Here is a list of the most common or intriguing mutations of the cannabis plant.

Everyone knows what a cannabis plant looks like, right? Actually, not so fast! Not all cannabis looks the same. With the rise of hybrid experimentation, mutations are increasingly common, if not deliberately bred into strains downstream. Certain strange mutations have actually become the basis for some of the most popular strains out there.

But what do these mutations look like? And what do they mean for the plant? If not your yield?


This mutation hails from Australia. A breeder then took advantage of the odd variety by cultivating it into a real “strain” – although the leaf mutation can occur across various strains. This mutation gets its name from the webbed, foot-like leaves that it grows. However, the different looking leaves are just the start of it. Most ducksfoot cannabis grows up to be sativa plants.

This strain is great for camouflage. Ducksfoot cannabis looks very unlike “normal” cannabis. Thus, it is perfect for cultivators in jurisdictions where growing is still verboten. The plant will also produce beautiful purple buds if the temperature is cold enough.


Also known as albinism, variegation is one of the most beautiful mutations of cannabis. This can occur either fully or partially. This mutation results from a plant’s inability to produce chlorophyll. It can occur on leaves, the heads of buds, or can wash out the entire plant in white.

In the most extreme cases, plants will not live very long as chlorophyll is necessary in the production of sugars for plant energy and development.

Variegation also means lower yields. A lessened ability to photosynthesise equates to slower growing plants. That said, some variegated plants can grow to be quite tall.


This kind of mutation is also very pretty. Cannabis plants have a great deal of natural geometry. This mutation creates a slightly different kind. Regular plants have two leaves that grow from each internode. Whorled phyllotaxy plants have three leaves instead. Plants with a whorled phyllotaxy tend to be extra bushy. That said, the trait is not useful to breeders as it can lead to greater yields, but will disappear once attempted to be bred and replicated.


Creeper cannabis tends to exhibit itself in tropical strains. These strains are already large and grow in humid conditions. The plant’s lower branches bow down to touch the ground. Once they reach the floor, the branches continue to grow, even forming new root sites. This phenotype is super useful for disguising grows. However, creeper cannabis is a rare mutation and has not been developed commercially.


ABC is an Aussie invention. It was first “discovered” near Sydney in the 70’s. This strange anomaly grows more like an herb than a shrub. The leaves are not serrated; instead they’re smooth and shiny, growing no more than 5cm in length.

The original ABC was more like hemp and was low in all cannabinoids. However, underground breeders managed to boost the THC levels. This mutation made ripples about a decade ago. No strains have (yet) been made commercially available.


Is it a true breed or just an extension of ABC? Nobody really knows. But Aussie breeders claim that ABC crosses can produce vine-like mutations in the plant. This includes the ability to form stems that wrap in a pattern around each other.

The mutation is extremely rare. It may only exist because of deliberate breeding to trigger this effect. While this trait is interesting, it is not advantageous to yield or cannabinoid concentration. No commercial strains currently incorporate this mutation.


Most flower sites on cannabis plants occur at the nodes, where the stalks originate. However, leaf buds occur at the base of the leaves themselves. This is an unusual (if pretty) mutation. It can also be advantageous to yield because the plant grows more bud sites. However, experienced growers tend to remove them as they form; they take up nutrients that can otherwise nourish the main flower sites.


Polyploids in nature are organisms that possess double the number of chromosomes than their non-mutant genetic twins. This trait can sometimes be fixed into plant species via selective breeding. Cannabis plants can spontaneously develop polyploidism. It can also be induced in plants via treatment with a powerful chemical called colchicine.

This is a hugely useful trait for significantly increasing THC production, as well as yield. Extra-large plants produce extra-large buds, of course. At this time, there are no true-breeding strains with this mutation that have been stabilised.


This is a common mutation, particularly in hybrid strains. The plant develops into a truly massive form – much like a tree. These massive cannabis plants look like indicas, but have the height of tropical sativas. This phenotype has one massive stalk that can grow up to 4m high. The plant looks either like a Christmas tree or a candelabra. The leaves are narrow, unlike the wider leaves of landrace sativas. While the plant is absolutely impressive and yields are prodigious, its height is a disadvantage in indoor grows.


This mutation is very common. Polyembryonic seeds contain more than one seedling. Once germinated, it will produce two taproots instead of one. If carefully handled, these seedlings can be successfully separated into two plants.

Strangely, one of the two plants will be a normal offspring of both mother and father. The other plant will only be a clone of the mother.

Three-seedling polyembryonic seeds have also been reported.

Despite its interesting biological marker and outcome, there is no real advantage to breeding plants with this trait. No effort has been made thus far to develop a true-breed with these characteristics.


This mutation is caused by calyces that grow stacked on top of each other. This creates a very oddly-shaped bud formation. This is not a detrimental mutation, but it is not necessarily beneficial either. This mutation breaks up the bud structure of the plant. Instead of growing into a rounded shape, the bud spreads out in an elongated way. It can also show that your plants are not ripening in the right way.

Heat and light stress can also cause this mutation. The calyxes literally form spires.

Foxtailing is not always an anomaly. Some Purple or Cole Train strains commonly produce foxtailed bud structures. Strains that hail from Colombia or Thailand also commonly exhibit these characteristics.

Cannabis is a commonly hybridised plant. But it can also create some interesting and strange mutations. Here is a guide of the most common cannabis mutations.

mangled, deformed and twisted leaves


Hi guys. This is my 3rd grow and i’m having some concerns about my babies.

My first grow was with a clone someone gave to me. My second grow was with seeds I bought. They were not sexed, so I had to flower them to find out what their sex was. Once I identified the females, I created 4 clones from the healthiest looking female, but those clones started growing with deformities. Some of the leaves only had growth on one side of the vein, or if there was growth on both sides, one side would be all shriveled-up and rotten looking. Not knowing what to do, I killed 3 of the 4 clones. One of them looked fine and from the one (still healthy mother) I created another 4 new clones. BUT NOW. they are all having this problem, so it seems to be spreading.

I started-off using a small amount of Advanced Nutrients’ Grow with pH Balance, but then when I started seeing the problem, I stopped using nutrients since i was worried that it was a over feeding problem. but now that I’ve flushed the plants and the problem is still showing with the new growth, now I’m thinking I have a real problem.

I’m pretty sure the pH of the dirt and the water is fine. I tested my tap water and it’s at about a 6. I tried nuts and i tried no nuts. Please help. pictures are attached.

To sum-up the survey below.. i use advanced nutrients because i worry about the pH. The pH of my water is high, like 7.7, the pH of my dirt is the same, but I was told that with Advanced Nutrients, it doesn’t matter what the pH of your water is… Am i wrong? If not, is there an easy way to lower the pH of my water… ?

The survey for Soil Growers:
1. Are you growing from seed or clones? Clones, from a flowering plants (approx 2 wks into flowering)
2. How old are your plants? 8+ wks mother & clones of about 4 wks (problem is spread)
3. How tall are your plants? 8+ wk old is about 2 1/2 feet & 4 wk old is about 7 inches
4. What size containers are they planted in? 3 liters & dixie cup s
5. What is your soil mix? Pro-mix (with Moisture Control), sheep manure and worm castings.
6. How often do you water and what type of water do you use? Tap water
7. What is the pH of your water? pH is about a 7.5
8. What kind of fertilizer do you use and what is its NPK ratio? Advanced Nutrients because i worry about pH all the time.
9. Do you foliar feed or spray your plants with anything? No
10. What kind of lights do you use and how many watts combined? (HPS, MH, fluorescent, halogen, incandescent “plant lights”): Combination of T5 Fluorescent and CFL
11. How close are your lights to the plants? Meh… cuz everything is in veg right now, it’s all in the same room, the lights are set to be just about 3 or 4 inches from the 2 foot tall plant, the light are about 2 feet from the shorter plants.
12. What size is your grow space in square feet? 2 x 4
13. What is the temperature and humidity in your grow space? 30C or 86F and humidity is 40%
14. What is the pH of the soil? it’s high @ 7.7
15. Have you noticed any insect activity in your grow space? No.
16. How much experience do you have growing? not much… 3rd grow

Hi guys. This is my 3rd grow and i'm having some concerns about my babies. My first grow was with a clone someone gave to me. My second grow was with seeds…