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When do Cannabis Plants Flower?

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  • Escrito por : Ciara
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Maybe you’re thinking about growing your very own weed at home, but you have about a thousand questions, such as when do cannabis plants flower? Well, in this article we’re going to try and give as clear an answer as possible to that delicate question. Cannabis plants have various different phases they must go through until their flowers can be harvested, dried, cured and smoked. During each phase your plants will have a certain set of requirements such as nutrients or the amount of light needed.

Cannabis plants have four main phases, which are germination, vegetative growth, flowering or bloom and the fattening period. Today we’re going to talk specifically about the flowering period; why it happens and when it happens.

What’s the flowering period?

The flowering period, or bloom as some people call it, is what happens when your plants begin to produce aromatic flowers which, with the right care, can later be harvested, dried, cured and smoked. Your plants will still grow a bit once they’ve begun the flowering stage, although they will eventually stop in order to focus all of their energy on producing large, resinous flowers. The flowering period tends to last around 7-9 weeks on average, although many sativa strains take quite a bit longer.

When do Cannabis Plants Flower?

Cannabis plants usually begin the flowering process when there’s a change in the amount of light and dark they receive. Many people believe that it’s due to them receiving less light when, in reality, it happens because they begin receiving more darkness.

In order to flower correctly, seasonal cannabis plants need at least 12 uninterrupted hours of darkness. During the day, your plants are photosynthesizing, turning light into energy and releasing oxygen – this is just general knowledge. When in total darkness, cannabis plants begin producing a hormone called florigen, which is in charge of starting the flowering period. If your cannabis plants begin receiving more hours of darkness, they will produce more florigen which forces them to flower.

Indoors and Outdoors

If you’ve ever growing cannabis indoors before, then you know that your plants will begin the flowering process once you switch the light period to 12h of light and 12h of darkness. The main difference between indoor and outdoor flowering is that outdoor plants will begin to flower according to the change in season, once the days get shorter and the nights get longer.

When the flowering period starts, your plants shouldn’t begin shooting off flowers straight away. They’ll keep growing for a couple of weeks, depending on the strain, so that they can make a smooth transition to the flowering period. This is technically called the pre-flowering period. Some plants can grow to double the size during this period if they haven’t grown much, which is something you’ll need to keep in mind when growing indoors.

Every strain has their own unique flowering process. Generally, seasonal strains follow the same pattern, although they can vary in as far as flowering times, pre-flowering times etc.

What happens if the dark cycle is interrupted?

Cannabis plants are living beings and they like their routines because any variation can easily stress them out. So, what would happen if you interrupted your plants’ dark cycle? Well, you’d stress your plant out quite a lot and it might end up revegging, which means that it reverts to the growth period and it’ll stop flowering because it’s stopped producing florigen.

In more extreme cases, your plant might actually end up becoming a hermaphrodite plant, which means that it’ll produce both male and female flowers. The male flowers will then pollinate the female flowers, leaving your buds full of seeds. If this happens and you manage to catch it fast enough, you can simply remove the male flowers and hope that it does its best.

The Exception: Autoflowering Plants

When it comes to autoflowering plants, they don’t flower when it comes to the quantity of light or Darkness that they get. Instead, autoflowering plants begin to bloom depending on the amount of time they’ve been growing for. Autos can flower while being given many more hours of light than dark, and indoors you can set them at 18h of light or more if you want. Autoflowering plants generally take 4-6 weeks to begin flowering. They can finish their full cycle in just 10 total weeks from germination to harvest, although some autoflowering strains may take a little longer.

When do cannabis plants flower? Why do cannabis plants flower? In this article we're explaining then how, when and why's of cannabis flowering.

Marijuana plant anatomy

Anatomy of a cannabis plant

The cannabis plant has several structures, many of which we can find on any ordinary flowering plant species. Cannabis grows on long skinny stems with its large, iconic fan leaves extending out from areas called nodes.

Cannabis really stands out in its flowers—or buds—where unique and intricate formations occur: fiery orange hairs, sugary crystals, and chunky buds enveloped by tiny leaves.

Here are the parts of the cannabis plant.

A cola refers to a cluster of buds that grow tightly together. While smaller colas occur along the budding sites of lower branches, the main cola—sometimes called the apical bud—forms at the top of the plant.

Stigma and pistil

The pistil contains the reproductive parts of a flower, and the vibrant, hair-like strands of the pistil are called stigmas. Stigmas serve to collect pollen from males.

The stigmas of the pistil begin with a white coloration and progressively darken to yellow, orange, red, or brown over the course of the plant’s maturation. They play an important role in reproduction, but stigmas bring very little to the flower’s potency and taste.

Bract and calyx

A bract is what encapsulates the female’s reproductive parts. They appear as green tear-shaped “leaves,” and are heavily covered in resin glands which produce the highest concentration of cannabinoids of all plant parts.

Enclosed by these bracts and imperceptible to the naked eye, the calyx refers to a translucent layer over the ovule at a flower’s base.

Trichomes

Despite their minute size, it’s hard to miss the blanket of crystal resin on a cannabis bud. This resin is secreted through translucent, mushroom-shaped glands on the leaves, stems, and calyxes.

Plants originally developed trichomes to protect against predators and the elements. These clear bulbous globes ooze aromatic oils called terpenes as well as therapeutic cannabinoids like THC and CBD. The basis of hash production depends on these trichomes and their potent sugar-like resin.

Male vs. female marijuana plants

Cannabis is a dioecious plant, meaning it can be male or female, and the male and female reproductive organs appear on different plants. What’s in your stash jar now are the flowers of a female marijuana plant.

Female plants produce the resin-secreting flower that is trimmed down into the buds you smoke, and males produce pollen sacs near the base of the leaves. Male plants pollinate females to initiate seed production, but the buds we consume come from seedless female plants—these are called “sinsemilla,” meaning “seedless.”

Growers can ensure the sex of their plants by growing clones or the genetically identical clippings from a parent strain. Feminized seeds are also made available through a special breeding process.

Male marijuana plants

When growing, male plants are usually discarded because you don’t want them to pollinate the females—this will produce seeds, and no one wants to smoke buds with seeds in it.

Males are important in the breeding process, but that is generally best left to expert breeders. When pollinating females, males provide half of the genetic makeup inherited by seeds. Because of this, it’s important to look into the genetics of the male plants. Their shape, rate of growth, pest and mold resistance, and climate resilience can all be passed on to increase the quality of future generations.

Male plants can also be used for:

  • Hemp fiber—males produce a softer material, while females produce a coarser, stronger fiber. The soft fiber from males is more desirable for products like clothing, tablecloths, and other household items.
  • Concentrate production—males do have some THC and can be psychoactive, but much less so than females. Small amounts of cannabinoids can be found in the leaves, stems, and sacs, which can be extracted to produce hash and other oils.

What are hermaphrodite cannabis plants?

The rare hermaphroditic plant contains both female and male sex organs. These plants can sometimes self-pollinate, but this is typically bad as it will create buds with seeds and also pass on hermaphroditic genes.

“Herming out,” as some call it, is something that generally happens when a plant becomes excessively stressed. Some stressors include:

  • Plant damage
  • Bad weather
  • Disease
  • Nutrient deficiencies

There are two types of hermaphrodite plants:

  • A plant that develops both buds and pollen sacs
  • A plant that produces anthers, commonly referred to as “bananas” due to their appearance

While both result in pollen production, true hermaphrodite cannabis plants produce sacs that need to rupture; anthers are exposed, pollen-producing stamen.

Because this occurs when cannabis is under stress, it’s important to monitor plants after they have been exposed to stressors: indoors, high temperatures or light leaks are often the cause; outdoors, a snapped branch might be repaired and then turn into a hermaphrodite.

The other primary cause of hermaphrodite plants lies in its genetics—a plant with poor genetics or a history of hermaphroditic development should be avoided to protect your garden. If you notice any pollen sacs or anthers at any point, remove the plant from your garden immediately to prevent pollination of female plants.

Bailey Rahn and Trevor Hennings contributed to this article.

Learn all about the parts of a marijuana plant, as well as the differences between females, males, and hermaphrodites.